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Full text of "A natural history of birds : illustrated with a hundred and one copper plates, curiously engraven from the life"


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NATURAL HISTORY 



O F 



B I R D 



ILLUSTRATED 



With a Hundred and one Copper Plates, 
Curioufly Engraven from the Life. 

Publifhed by the Author ELEAZAR ALBI kI^ 
and carefully colour'd by his Daughter and Self, from 
the Originals, drawn from the live Birds. 




LONDON: 

Printed for the Author: And Sold by William Innys m St. Paul's Church Tard -, 
John Clarke un^Qv xh& Royal'Exchange, Cornhill; and John Brindley at 
Mh^ Kings Arms in New Bond-Street. M DCC XXXI. 



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W O R S H I P f U L 



Sir ROBERT A 






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KNIGHT and BARONET. 



Honour'd SIR, 

S You are well skilled in all the 
Belles hemes, and particularly in 
Natural Hiftory, fo you have fa- 
vour d me with the Help thereof 
on divers Occafions, and particularly in 
this Colle£lion of Birds. What Patron then 
can I find to whom this Collection is fo juftl 

A 2 




DEDICATION. 

due as to Your Self ? and I am glad I am fa- 
vour'd with fo good an Opportunity of 
returning you my Thanks, and making the 
moft ample and publick Acknowledgments 
that are in the Power of, 



Honoured Sir, 



Your mojl devoted 



Humble Servant^ 



ELEAZAR ALBIN. 



T O T H E 



READER. 



THAT which greatly encouraged me to undertake 
this Hijiory of Birds ^ was the univerfal Approbation 
which my Natural Hijiory of Infers met with amongft 
the moft skilful and curious in Natural Knowledge, fo as 
to bear a Tranflation into Latin ; but indeed it is a Task 
which fome of the prime Vertuofo's of the Age have put 
me upon, and have given me their Affiftance, fome by 
furnilhing me with Birds, others with curious Obfervations, 
relating to their Nature, Qualities, length of Age, Food, 
Habitation, Infl:in6b, Ufes, ^c. All which Particulars I 
have taken notice of my felf, and given an Account of as 
I had Occaiion in the Defcriptions. 

And as for the Defcriptions, I have done thofe with all 
the Accuracy I could from the very Birds themfelves^ 
which I had always by me at that Time ; and particularly 
I took care to defcribe their Char act erijiick Notes and Spe-- 
cifick Differences ; and to impofe on them the mofl: received 
and proper Names both Englifh and Latin-, m all which 
I had the Affiftance of the beft Ornithologijis, particularly 
of the juftly famous Mr. JVilloughhfs Ornithology^ and 
Mr. Ray's Improvements thereof in his Synopfa methodic a 

AviuMj 



To the READER. 

Avium, publifn'd by Dr. Derham: Only to fome of the 
Non Dejcripts I was forced to impofe Names, or take 
fuch as tho. London Bird - Catchers, or others, called them 
by. 

As for the Paintings, they are all done from the Life, 
with all theExaclnefs I could either with my own Hand, 
or my Daughters, whom I have taught to draw and paint 
sfter the Life : So that I hope none of thofe who have 
been fo kind as to aflift this my Undertaking, will have 
any caufe to repent of their Favours, but will rather en- 
courage and enable me to proceed upon a fecond Volume, 
which I am preparing, and pretty well provided for. 

I fliall be very thankful to any Gentleman that will 
be pleafed to fend any curious Birds (which Ihall be 
drawn and graved for the fecond Volume, and their Names 
Ihali be mentioned as Encouragers of the Work) to Elea-^ 
zar Albin n^2iic the Dog and Duck in Tottenham r Court 
Road. " ' 



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THE 



O F T H E 



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N A M E S 



SUBSCRIBERS. 



rylR Anthony Thomas Abdy, Barf. 
. \ Sir Robert Abdy, Bart. 
^^ William Archer, Efq-, 
Robert Antrobus, ui. M. 



B 



^he Right Honourable the Lord Burlington. 

Two Books 
Sir Samuel Barnadifton 
The Lady Catharin Bathurft 
Brook Bridges, Efq-y 
Robert Briilow, Efqi 
Serjeant Baines 
Mrs. Beffwick 
B. Baron, Engraver 
John Brotherton, Bookfelkr 



The Right Honourable the Lady Elizabeth 

Compton 
Vice Chamberlain Coke 
Henry Corneliflbn, Efqi 
John Cook, Efq-, 
John Clarke, Bookfelkr at the Royal Exchange 



D 



His Grace the Duke of Devonfhire 
Sir Darcy Daws, Bart. 
John Dalbey, Efq; 
Jofeph Dandridge 



E 



The Right Honourable the Lord Chief Jufiici 
Eyfes 

P 

The Right Honourable the Lord Foley 

Sir John Fortefcue 

Sir Thomas Frankland 

Tkf/-. Frankland 

Mr. Abraham Francia 

G V 

The Right Honourable the Lady Mary Gore 

Charles Goflyn, E^j 

Mrs. Goopy 

Mrs. Elizabeth Goopy 

H 

The Right Honourable the Lord Harley. Two 
Books The 



The Names of the SUBSCRIBERS. 

P 



The "Right Honourable the Lady Elizabeth 

Herbert 
Charles Hedges, E/^; 
Mr. Hewer 

Mrs. Ho vizard , ... 

Colonel Hopkey 
Jacob Hubland, Efq; _ ; 



The Right Honourable the Lord Hay 

Edward Jackfon, Efq; 

Charles Jarnegan, M. D. 

Erneft Auguflus Jager, Efq; 

William Innys, Bookfeller. Two Books 



The Right Honourable the Lord Lovel 

Sir Thomas Louther 

The Right Hmourable Anthony Louther 

William Legrand, Efq; 

Mrs. Helena Legrand 

Charles Long, EJiq; 

Samuel Long, Ejq; 

James Lemmon 

M 

Richard Mead, M. D. F. R. S. 
Mr. John Maud, Chymiji 
William Meadows, Bookfeller 

N 

The Right Honourable the Lord Vifcount Nu- 
ton. 



John Nicholas, Efq; 
William Nicholas, Efq; 

O 

Nathaniel Oldham, Efq; 



The Right Honourable John Lord Percival 
The Right Honourable the Lord Petre 
Nathaniel Primat, Efq; 



R 



John Rich, Efq; 

Mr. Thomas Richardfon, Apothecary 

Thomas Robe, Efq; 

The Reverend Dr. Rundle 



J 



?. 



Sir Edward Smith, Bart. 

The Right Honourable the Lady St. John 

John Stanhope, Efq; 

Sir Hans Sloane, Bart. M. D. F. R. S. 

Edward Southwell, E/q; 

Mrs. Sharp 

Albertus Seba of Amfterdam 

Alexander Seba 

William Sherard, LL.D. F.R.S, 



The Right Honourable the Earl of Thanet 
The Right Honourable the Lord Tyrconnel ,, 
The Right Honourable Thomas Lord Trevor ' 
T:he Right Honourable the Lady Trevor 
The Honourable Gv&cc Thy nn 
Chomley Turner, Efq; 
George Thombrough, Efq; 
Pat. Thoroughgood, Efq; 



V 



Abraham Vandenhoeck and Comp. 

W 

The Right Honourable James Lord Walgrave 
John Willcox, Bookfeller 



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( ' ) 

The Putfock or common Buzzard. Buteo. 

IT is of the BIgnefs of a young Tullet : Its Weight is 3 3 Ounces, Length from the 
tip of the Beak to the end of the Tail 22 Inches : Its Breadth when the "Wings are 
extended 49 Inches and a half; the Head large, the Crown broad and flat, the Beak 
of a middle Size, hooked, and of a dark blue, a yellow Skin covers the upper Chap from 
the Root beyond the Noftrils ; the corners of the Mouth are alfo of a yellow Colour : 
Its Tongue is thick, flefliy and blunt, as in the reft of the Hawk Kind : The Roof of the 
Mouth hath in it a hollow equal to the Tongue. The Angle of the lower Chap is cir- 
cular, the Eyes are large, the Iridis of the Eye whitifh, with a fmall {hade of yel- 
low, and fometimes a (hade of red; the lower Eye-lid downy, the Membrane for 
Nidation blue. 

The Colour of the upper Part of the Head, Back, Wings, and Tail are of a dark- 
brown approaching to black, with feveral light Spots on the Back and Top of the Head ; 
fome of the Feathers of the Wings and Breaft are edged with a faint, dirty, yellowifh 
white : The Chin, Breaft and Belly was of a pale ferrugineous Colour, with feveral 
dark-brown Spots ; between the Eyes and Noftrils grow long, black and white Briftles, the 
middle of the Back is covered with Down, the fcapular Feathers covering the whole Back. 

The flag Feathers in each Wing are about ?4 in Number, the outmoft of which is 
ftiorteft, the 3d and 4th (counting from it) longcft, the Tips of the 4 outmoft are blacker 
and narrower than ihofe of the reft; the interior Webs of all are variegated with broad, 
tranfverfe, duiky and whitifh Streaks, or Bars, after the manner of thofe of the Wood- 
cock; the under Side of the Wings, excepting the Tips of the Flags, and third Part 
of the 5 outmoft Feathers, is white, varied with tranfverfe parallel Lines ; the Wing* 
clofed, reach almoft to the end of the Train; the Train is 9 or 10 Inches long, made up 
of twelve Feathers, when fpread, terminating in a circular Circumference; the outmoft 
Tips of its Feathers are of an Afti-colour, then follows a tranfverfe black Line of an Inch 
in breadth, the remaining Part being variegated, black and cinereous, tranfverfe Spaces of 
Bars, only the Bottoms of the Feathers white. 

The Thighs are long, ftrong and fleftiy, and feathered a little below the Knees ; the 
Legs^fhort, thick and ftrong, cover 'd with yellow Scales, as are alfo the Feet: The out Toe 
joins below to the middlemoft by a Membrane, the Talons are ftrong, long and black, that 
of the outmoft fore Toe the leaft, that of the back Toe the biggeft. 

The Liver is divided into 2 Lobes, having a large Gall ; the Spleen is of an oval Figure ; 
the Stomach large, not mufculous, but membranous, that is, not fleftiy, like the Gizzard 
of a Hen, or Turkey, &c. but fliinny like thofe of Bcafts. 

It feeds not only on Mice, Moles and Birds, bur for want of better Food, on Beetles, 
Worms and other Infeds. I open'd the Stomach of one fent me by Sir Robert Abdy, and 
found in it a Frog, a Toad, a large Field-nioufe, and feveral Worms and Beetles ; they arc 
alfo great Deftroyers of Rabbits and young Hares. 

The Heads of thefe Birds are faid to grow cinereous with Age, and the Feathers of 
the Back white ; but whether it comes to pafs by reafon of Age or Sex, or other Acci- 
dent, it is not determin'd ; but they differ much in the Colour of their Plumage, fome 
having more white, others not any. 

Buzzards Eggs are white, ftain'd with a few great redd ifti Spots, and fometimes all white, 

Pliny and Aldrovandus mention this Bird to have 3 Tefticlcs, but our modern Authors 
have found but 2 with all their diligent Search. 

B The 



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The Honey Bnzzard. 



J ^ Numb. II. 



ITS Length from the point of the Beak to the end of the Tail was 23 Inche» 
Diftance, between the Wings when expanded was 52 Inches, Weight 33 Ounces. 
Its Beak from the Point to the Angles of the Mouth was an Inch and a half long, 
black, and very hooked, bunching out between the Noflrils and the Head j the Bafis of the 
upper Chap cover'd with a thick, rugged, black Skin beyond the Noftrils, which arc 
not exadly round, but long and bending ; the Mouth when gaping, very wide and yellow ; 
the Angle of the lower Chap, as in other Hawks, femicircular ; the Irides of the Eyes 
of a lovely yellow : The Head is of a Light-brown, or Moufe-colour ; the Crown 
flat, broad, narrow toward the Beak; the Back and Wings are of a ferrugineous Co- 
lour (or Moufe-dun :) The Wings when clos'd reach not to the end of the Tail ; the 
Number of flag Feathers in each Wing are 24, the Tail is made up of 12 Feathers near 
12 Inches long. 

The Chin, Breaft, Belly, Thighs and under fide of the Tail are of a pale dun, inclin- 
i-ng to white, with tranfverfe Bars of a deeper yellowiih Shade, excepting the Tail, 
which is plain without Bars. 

The Legs are feather'd down fomewhat below the Knees, fhort, ftrong and yellow, 
as are alfo the Feet ; the Talons long, ftrong, fharp and black : The Guts fhorter than 
thofe in the common Buzzard, the blind Guts thick and (hort : In the Stomach was found 
a great Number of green Caterpillars, call'd hoopers, as were alfo feveral common Cater- 
pillars, and others of the Infedt Kind. It builds its Ncft of fmall Twigs, laying on 
them Wool, and upon the Wool its Eggs : Some of them have been found to make ufe 
of an old Neft of a Kite to breed in, feeding their Young with the Nympha ofWafps^ 
the Combs of the Wafps being found in the aforefaid Nefts, in which were two young 
Ones covered with a white down, fpottcd with black, their Feet of a pale yellow, their 
Bills between the Noflrils and the Head white, their Craws large ; in the Crops were 
found Lizards, Frogs, &c. In one of them were found two Lizards intire, with their 
Heads towards the Bird's Mouth, as if they fought to creep out. 

This Bird runs very fwiftly like a Hen, the Female being larger than the Male, which 
is common in thofe of the rapacious Kind. 

The Eggs of this Fowl are cinereous, mark'd with darker Spots. 




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(3) 

- The Moor Buzzard. Milvus iEruginofus; /t^uuU'^^ 

Numb. Ill 

IT is not fo big as the common Buzzard, nor the Crown fo flat and 
broad : Its Length from the point of the Bill to the end of the Tail 
was 2 4 Inches ; the Diftance between the Wings, when extended, y 6 
Inches ; the Beak about an Inch and a half long, hooked, cover'd at 
Bottom with an afh-colour'd Skin or Sear, elfe black ; the Noftrils longifh ; 
the Mouth within fide partly black, partly bluifh ; the Tongue broad, flefhy 
and foft, as in other Birds of Prey; the Cleft in the Palate wide and open; 
the Eyes of a mean Size ; the Iridis yellow. 

The Top of the Head under the Chin, and the covert Feathers on the 
upper fide of the Wings joining to the Body, are of a pale-oker or fulvous 
Colour, variegated with black Lines ; the Colour of the whole Body, as 
well lower Side as upper, is of a dark ferrugineous Colour. 

The Wings, when clofed, reach almoft to the end of the Tail; the 
Number of flag Feathers in each Wing are 24, thefe are darker; theout- 
mofl is a Hand's-breadth fhorter than the next to it ; the covert Feathers 
of the under flde of the Wings are party-colour'd, brown and fulvous. 

The Tail is made up of 12 Feathers, about 9 Inches long, terminating 
in a circular Form when fpread, being party-colour'd, of a dark and 
light fulvous, or bay. 

The Legs are from the Knee to the end of the middle Claw 6 Inches, 
feather'd a little below the Knee; they are longer aud flenderer for the 
Bignefs of the Bird than others of the Hawk Kind ; the Legs and Feet are 
yellow ; the Talons black ; the outer Toe is joined to the Middle by an 
intermediate Membrane reaching from the Devarication up almoft half 
way ; the Talon of the middle Toe is thinn'd on the inner flde into an 
Edge : It hath a large Gall, and its blind Guts fhort and fmall ; they 
are common on Heaths and Waftes, fitting on fmall Trees and Shrubs,, 
and build in fenny Places. 



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(4) 

The Kite of dead. Milvus. 

Numb. IV. 

IT S Weight was two Pound 1 3 Ounces : Its Length from the end of the Bill to 
the end of the Tail 2 Foot 4 Inches : Its Breadth when extended was near 5 Foot; 
the Beak was 2 Inches long, the upper Chap hanging oyer the lower half an Inch. 

Its Head, Chin, and part of the Neck are afh-colour, varied with black Lines ; the 
Brcaft, Belly and Thighs are of a reddifh brown, regularly fpotted with black; the Back 
of a duflcy brown like the Buzzards, the Feathers next to the Tail of the fame Colour 
with it, having their middle Parts or Shafts black ; the lefler row of Wing-Feathers are 
party-colour'd of red, black and white ; the middle Part of each Feather along the 
Shaft is black J the long fcapular Feathers covering the Back have black Lines like 
the Flags ; the Feathers covering the infide of the Wing are red, with black Spots in 
their Middles : The Plumage of the lower fide hath the Edges afli-colour'd, then 
follows red, the middle Part being black : The black Part is by Degrees lefs and lefs 
from the Chin to the Tail ; fo that under the Tail only the Shafts are black; the red 
Colour is alfo more diluted towards the Tail. The flag Feathers of the Wings are in 
Number 24, the 5 outmoft are black, the next 6 are of a dark cinereous Colour j all the 
reft are again black; the laft party-colour'd of red, white and brown; all but the 5 or 6 
exterior Feathers have in their outward Webs black tranfverfe Lines, the Spaces between 
the Lines being whitifti, efpecially from the 6th to the nth: The foremoft of the 
fccond row of Feathers are black ; as alfo the baftard Wing : The Wings ciofed are al- 
moft as long as the outmoft Feathers of the Tail. 

The Tail is forked, the middle Feathers of which arc 1 1 Inches long, the outermoft 
14 Inches : The under Side are of a pale reddifli Colour, with black Lines acrofs. 

The Bill is of a flefliy Colour, and in fome blackifti, having fcarce any Tooth like 
Appendices; the Tongue broad and thick, as in other carnivorous Birds ; in the Palate 
there is a Cavity equal to the Tongue; the Sear or Skin about the Noftrils is yellow; in 
the Roof of the Mouth is a double Cranny or Hole ; the Eyes are large, the Iridis. of a 
pale but lovely yellow. 

The Legs and Feet yellow; the outmoft fore Toe join'd to the middle one by a 
Membrane reaching almoft half way ; the Talons black, that of the back Toe being the 
greateft ; the Talon of the middle Toe harh a ftiarp Edge on the infide. 

It hath a great Gall, and a large Craw ; the ftreight Gut below the Appendices is 
much dilated, as in others of this Kind. 

Its Manner of flying is by fpreading its Wings, and ballancing itfelf in the Air, refting 
as it were immoveable a long Time without any motion of its Wings, and with very 
little moving glides through the Air, from Place to Place, which it is thought has 
given it the Name of Glead. 

It is diftinguiftied from all other Birds of Prey by its forked Tail, and is faid to 
be a Bird of Paflage, fhifting Places according to the Seafons of the Year. 

They are a great Deftroyer of Chickens, Ducklings and Goflings ; being fo bold as 
to come and take them from out of the Gardens, or Courts-yards of Houfes in the 
Country, Cities, and Places frequented by Men. 



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(5) 

The Sparrow-Hawk Accipiter Fringillarius; ^^ ^^-^ 

Numb. V. 

ITS Length from the point of the Bill to the end of the Tail is 13 
Inches, its Breadth when the Wings are extended, i Feet, Weight j 
Ounces; its Beak is fhort, hooked, bluifh, and black towards the Point; 
the Bafis of the upper Chap is covered with a yellowifli green Skin, ha- 
ving an angular Appendix or Tooth on each fide the Noftril. The 
Noftrils are oblong, the Palate blue, the Tongue thick, black and a little 
cleft; the Eyes of a mean Size, /r/<//j yellow, the Brows prominent; the 
Crown of the Head, upper fide of the Neck, Back, Shoulders and Wings, 
are of a dark brown, fpotted with darker Spots of the fame Colour ; the 
under fide, viz. the Neck, Breafl, Belly and Sides are of a yellow Colour, 
with indented Marks of brown crofUng the whole Breafl and Belly of the 
Bird ; the Feathers under the Chin are of a pale RufTet, inclining to white, 
fpotted on their middle Parts towards the Tip with brown. 

The Wings, when clofed, fcarce reach to the middle of the Train ; the 
quill Feathers are in Number 18, the interior Vanes light red, with five 
fcallop Bars of black; the out Vanes are of a dark brown or hair Colour; 
the under fide of the Wings, with the Coverts, all light red, with black 
indented Bars a-crofs each Feather. 

The Tail is made of 1 1 Feathers, 6 Inches and a half long, of a dark 
brown Colour, with tranfverfe Bars of black ; the Thighs are ftrong and 
flefhy, as in all Birds of Prey ; the Legs long, flender and yellowifh, reach- 
ing to the end of the Train ; the Toes long, Claws crooked and black : 
The Food of this Hawk is only Birds, he never touching Beetles or other 
Infe6l ; it is a bold courageous Bird, and frequently train'd up and made 
for Hawking : They are often taken in the Nets by the Bird-catchers, when 
they come down to ftrike at their Brace-birds. 

They lay five white Eggs, fpotted near the blunt end with a Circle, as 
it were a Coronet, of blood-red Specks. x 



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The Hohhy. Subbuteo. 

Numb. VI. 

IT S Weight was 7 Ounces and a half; the Length 1 2 Inches and a half, from the 
Tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail ; the Breadth or Diflance between the tips of 
the Wings extended, 2 Feet 6 Inches ; the Beak like that of a Kejirel; the upper Mandible 
prominent, hooked, femi-circular ; the Bafe cover'd with a yellow Skin or Sear, the 
Part next the Skin white, the reft of a dark blue. It hath a Tooth, or Angle, on eack 
Side at the Beginning of the hooked Part, which is receiv'd in a hollow Dent in the lower 
Chap : The Tongue broad, and a little cleft or divided ; the Palate within fide black, 
having a Cavity imprefs'd .to receive the Tongue ; the Noftrils round j the Irides of the 
Eyes of a Hazel Colour ; the Eye-lids yellow. 

The Feathers on the Top of the Head had their Shafts or middle Part black, their Bor- 
ders of a deep Chefnut : Thofe on the Middle of the Neck of a Clay-colour, the 
Back and Wings of a dark-brown, or cinereous black; thofe on the Rump and the leflcr 
pinion Feathers being lighter, the greater pinion Feathers, and thofe on the middle of the 
Back darker. The Chin and upper part of the Throat whitifh with a faint yellow; to 
this white were drawn from the Head on each Side two Lines ending in Points ; one 
from the Aperture of the Mouth, the other from the hinder part of the Head ; thefe Marks 
diftinguilli the Hobby from the other Hawk Kind : The lower part of the Belly was 
reddifh, the reft of the Belly and Breaft clothed with Feathers fpotted with black in 
the Middle, and having their Edges white, the Thighs red fpotted as the Breaft, but 
fmaller : The Number of prime Feathers in each Wing 24, whereof the fecond the 
longeft; the extreme or outmoft had their tips black, all of them their interior Webs 
varied with tranfverfe clay-coloured Spots. The covert Feathers of the under fide of the 
Wings were black, curioully painted with round Spots of white diluted with red. 

The Tail confifted of 1 2 Feathers, the middlemoft were the longeft and the reft in 
Order {hotter ; the Length of the middlenwft was about 5 Inches and a half; thefe were 
on both fides their Shafts of one and the fame Colour, the reft had their interior Vanes 
with tranfverfe reddilh Spots, the outmoft Tips being whitifti ; the Legs and Feet were 
yellow; the middle and outmoft Toes connected as in others of this Kind to the iiift: 
Joint j the Talons black as Jet. 

It had a large Gall ; the Length of the Guts was two Feet lacking an Inch ; the Appen- 
dices or blind Guts ftiort ; befides which it had another fingle Appendix or Procefs which 
feemed to be the Remainder of the DuSlus Intejimalis fhrunk up. 

The Hobby is a Bird of Paflage, yet breeds with us in E?tgland; its Game is chiefly 
Larks, for the catching of which Birds our Fowlers make ufe of it th,us ; the Spaniels 
range the Field to find the Birds ; the Hobby they let off, who is accuftomcd to foar 
aloft in the Air over them : The Larks efpying their capital Enemy over them dare not 
make ufe of their Wings but lie as clofe and flat upon the Ground as they can ; and are 
cafily taken with the drawing Net which is made on Purpofe for that Sport ; this is called 
Daring of Larks. 

The Fowlers to catch thefe Hawks take a Lark, and having blinded her, and faftned 
Lime-twigs to her Legs, let her fly where they fee the Hobby i?, which ftriking at the 
Lark is entangled with the Lime-twigs j it is called in Englijh the Hsbl))\ after the French 
Name Hobreau, 

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The Keftnl or Wmdhover. Tinnunculus. /f.^/<4^/^ 

Numb. VII. 

TH E Female is about the Bignefs of a Pigeon : Its Length from the point of the 
Beak to the end of its Train was 13 Inches: Breadth 25 Inches: Weight 5 
Ounces and 2 Drams. The Beak fhort, prominent, hooked and fharp-pointed ; the Bafis 
of the upper Chap is covered with a Skin or Membrane, in which are the Noftrils ; the 
middle Part next the Boar is white, the reft of a dark blue ; it is toothed or angled, 
which is receiv'd in a Dent or Cavity in the lower Chap : The Noftrils round ; the 
Tongue cleft j the Eye-Hds yellow j the Eyes defended by prominent Brows. It bath a 
wide Mouth and the Palate blue. 

The Head is great j the Crown fiat, inclining to an Afli-colour, and marked with narrow 
black Lines along the Shaft of each Feather; the Back^ Shoulders and covert Feathers 
of the upper fide of the Wings ferrugineous, marked with black Spots, viz, each Feather 
being reddifh hath a black Spot towards the Tip. 

The Rump is cinereous ; the lower fide of the Body, that is, the Breaft and Belly, was 
of a pale Buff-colour varied with black Spots or Lines drawn downwards along the Shafts of 
the Feathers ; the Chin and lower Belly without Spots. 

The flag Feathers of the Wing are in Number 24, the exterior of which are of a 
brown or dufky Colour, but their interior Vanes are partly of a reddifli white, indented 
with the brown like the Teeth of a Saw ; the fix or feven next to the Body are red, 
having their interior Vanes marked with tranfverfe brown Stroaks j the under fide of the 
Wing is white, with black Spots. 

The Train is made up of 12 Feathers above feven Inches long, the outmofi: fhorteff, 
the reft: in Order gradually longer to the middlemoft, marked with tranfverfe Bars of a 
dulky Colour. 

The Legs and Feet are of a lovely yellow, the Talons black ; it had a Gall ; in the Sto- 
mach was found Beetles and Fur oiMice\ the Length of the Guts was 28 Inches ; the fingle 
blind Gut was twice as long as the lower Appendices or blind Guts. The Male or Tarcel 
differs from the Female chiefly in being lefs, and having the Head and Back of an Afli- 
colour. They are often reclaimed and trained up for Fowling, and catch not only J}nall 
Birds, but young Partridges alfo. They build in Holes of Oaks and other Trees, and 
lay 4 Eggs of a whitifh Colour, fpotted with fmall red Spots of a Vermilion- colour, 
which makes them look very beautiful. 




rhe 



d^ 



(8) 

The Cuckow. Cuculus. 
Numb. VIII. 

ITS Length from the Tip of the Bill to the End of the Tail was 12 Inches; Breadth 
when the Wings were expanded, 24 Inches ; Weight 2 Ounces, i Dram. The upper 
Chap of the Bill fomewhat hooked, and longer than the lower, for the mod part of a 
blackifti Colour ; the nether of a palifh yellow. The infide of the Mouth and the 
Tongue arc of a deep yellow or Saffron-colour ; the Tip of the Tongue hard and pel- 
lucid ; the Irides of the Eyes yellow ; the Noftrils round, wide, extant above the Surface 
of the Bill, wherein it differs from all other Birds ; the loweJr Eye-Hd is the greateft j 
the Edges of the Eye-lids are yellow ; the Throat, Breafl and Belly are white, with tranf- 
verfe dark femicircular Lines, which are intire and not interrupted ; the Feathers of the 
Head are of a dark Afh-colour inclining to brown with light Edges ; the Feathers on 
the middle of the Neck and Back alfo are brown with a Tindure of red, having their 
Edges whitifh ; the Rump afh-coloured. 

The beam Feathers of the Wings are 1 9 in Number, the greater whereof are the 

■darkefl; all from the fecond have their exterior Vanes fpotted with oblong whitifh 

Spots ; the interior Vanes of the outmofl have long, tranfverfe, white Spots j the Tips 

of all are white ; the covert Feathers of the Wings are of the fame Colour with thofc 

of the Back. 

The Tail was made up of 10 Feathers, diflinguifhcd on both fides the Shaft, with 
Marks fomewhat refembling the Figure of a Hart about an Inch diflant from each 
other ; the Edges of the inner Sides of all but the 2 middlemofl, and the Tops of all 
were adorned with white Spots, like thofe in the Wing. 

The Feet and Claws are yellowifh, inclining to a Flefh-colour ; in the Stomach of one 
I fhot in the beginning of September, I found a great Number of the plad Caterpillar, 
which are defcribed in my Book of Infeds, p. 23. The Cuckow builds no Nefl, but 
deflroying the Eggs of other Birds, viz. ( Hedge-fparmvs, Ring-doves, Water-wag-tails, 
Larks, Finches, and others ) lays her Egg, leaving it to be hatch'd and brought up by 
them till it can fhift for itfelf, which is fomewhat extraordinary in Nature, and differing 
from all the volatile Kind. 

There are many Stories of their being found in hollovt^ Trees in the Winter, but I 
am inclined to believe them to be a Bird of PafTage, and go into the hot Countries, 
where there is Plenty of Infefts for their Subfiflence ; as the Swallow, Nightingale, ^c. 
which feed altogether o^i^feds. 






*?f^^5* 






'The 




(l&tn^i^. 



Cu£alt(J ■ 



Qnu£ni: 



^ 




The IrrzTTirn. Chtr/ . 



(9) 

The. Brown Owl. Strix. /fc^^cco/C^, 



Numb. IX. 

IT S Weight was 1 2 Ounces and 8 Drams, Length from the end of the Bill to the end 
of the Tail was 14 Inches j its Breadth when the Wings are extended was 2 Feet and 
8 Inches. 

The Bill was hooked, an Inch long or more, of a Horn Colour j the Tongue neither 
very flefliynor broad, a little divided at the Tip, it had a Cavity in the Palate equal to the 
Tongue ; it had large Eyes almoft twice as big as thofe of the Barn or white Owl, and 
protuberant with Membranes for Nidiation, drawn from above downwards, having black 
Edges, the Borders of the Eyes very broad with red Edges, the Ear-holes three times as 
big as thofe of the white Owls, and covered with Valves, a Circle of Feathers encompaf- 
fing the Eyes and Chin like a Woman's Hood : This Circle coniifts of a double Row of 
Feathers, thecxt^rior more rigid, variegated with white, black and red; the interior con- 
fifting of foft Feathers, of a white mingled with a flame Colour ; the middle Part of the 
Head without the Hood is of a dark brown ; the exterior Circle of the Hood compaffes 
the Ears ; the greatefl Part of the inferior Feathers of it, where it paffes the Ears, grows 
out of the Covers of the Ears, The Eyes are nearer to the Ears in this Bird than in any 
other Animal. Beyond theNoftrils and below the Eyes grow briftly Feathers, with black 
Shafts. The back and upper Side of the Body was party-colour'd of ferrugineous and 
dark brown, black taking up the middle Part of each Feather, and the ferrugineous the 
out-fides. If one curioufly view^ and obfervc its Feathers, you will find them waved with 
tranfverfe Lines, cinereous and brown, alternately fucceeding each other. The Belly and 
lower Side of the Body are ot the lame Colour with the Back, but paler, and diluted with 
white. The Feathers in this and other Owls which invcft the whole Body are longer 
than in moft other Birds, fo that the Bird feems to be much bigger than indeed it is. 
The Feet are cover'd with a thick dirty white Plumage, fprinkled with fmalldark Specks 
almoft down to the Claws. 

The Number of flag Feathers in each Wing are 24, the exterior Webs of the outmoft 
whereof were terminated in flender Points like Briftles, feparate from each other, and 
Handing like the Teeth of a fine Comb. 

The Wing and Tail Feathers were marked with 6 or 7 crofs Bars, of dirty white, 
tinctur'd in fome with ferrugineous, and in others with brown. The Wings complicated 
fall very much fhort of the End of the Tail. The covert Feathers of the Wings, chiefly 
thofe about the middle, and thofe long ones fpringing from the Shoulders, were fpotted 
with white, efpecially their interior Vanes. 

The Tail was 6 Inches and a half long, made up of 12 Feathers; the middlemoft 
being the longeft, the reft in order fhorter to the outmofl, all ending in fharp Points j 
whereas in thofe of the Barn Owl the Tops are blunt. 

The Sole of the Foot v/as callous, of a horny or blackifh Colour ; that of the middle 
Toe had not the inner Edge ferrate as in the white Owl, all its Toes being leparate to 
the very Divarication. Theoutmoft of the fore Toes is made to turn backward, and fup- 
ply the room of a back Toe, as in the relt of this Kind. 

The Guts are 50 Inches long, and had many Revolutions ; the blind Guts were 5 Inches 
and a half long, toward their Ends tumid and full of Excrements; the Liver divided into 
two halves ; it had a large Gall, and great black Tefticles ; the Stomach feemed to be 
more flefhy than in other carnivorous Birds, and above it a granulated Echinus or Ante- 
Stomach ; in the Stomach was found the Fur of Mice. 

Thele and mofl: of the Owl Kind arc great Deftroyers of young Hares and Rabbits, at 
Time of Feeding in the Evening. 

D The 



/oZ - 



( 10 ) 

HUUuqU^ The Churn-Owl or Goat-Sucker. Caprlmulgus. 

/^y- Numb.X. 

ITS Length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail is lo Inches, 
the Breadth when the Wings are extended 14 Inches, its Weight 
2 Ouncesj its Head large, its Bill (in proportion to its Body) the leaft of 
all Birds, and a little crooked 5 it hath a large wide Mouth and Swallow; 
/ ' on the Sides of the upper Chap of the Bill, as alfo under the Chin, grows 

ftiff black Hairs like Briftles. 

The under fide of the Body was painted with blackifh and pale red Lines, 
tranfverfe but not continued ; the hinder Part of the Head of an afh Co- 
lour, the middle of each Feather being black j which Colours reach alfo 
down the Back. 

The Wings are partly colour'd with brown, black, red and afh Colour, 
powder'd with divers dark and light Specks of afh Colour and black. 

The Tail is 5 Inches long, made up of ten Feathers, the outermoft of 
which are fomething fhorter than the reft ; they are of the fame Colour 
with the Back and Wings, with triangular tranfverfe Bars pointing upwards, 
of black and afh Colour, mingled and powder'd with black and red. 

The Legs were very fmall in proportion, feather'd. on the fore-fide half 
way. The Legs and Feet darkifh red, the Claws black and little, the mid- 
dlemoft Toe the longeft, the other two fhorter, but of equal Length with 
each other, and each joined to the middlemoft by a Membrane, from the 
Divarication to the firft Joint ; the interior edge of the middle Claw is 
cerrate as in the Heron. 

In the Stomach was found S'eedsy Beetles^ and other Infe<5ls. 

They lay their Eggs, which are long and white, clouded and fpotted 
with black, in a Hole in the Ground, without building a Neft, in which 
they hatch their Young, and when difturb'd will carry their Young to other 
Places of Shelter j this was obferved by ^iv Henry Heron in Enfield-Chace, 
where they are very common in the Summer Seafon. I have alfo feen 
them on /i^/JW^-Zi^rrf/?, and divers other Places. 



The 



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( 'I ) 

The Maccan or Macao of Brafils, 

Numb. XI. 

IT is bigger than our common Raven ; its Head large, 
broad, and flat above ; the If ides of the Eye white (as 
is alfo a large Space void of Feathers about the Eye) the 
Pupil black; the Bill is great and hooked, the upper Man- 
dible of a fleihy Colour, the lower dark brown. Its Tongue 
and manner of Feeding is like thofe of other Parrots ; the 
upper Chap of the Bill is near 3 Inches long, broad or 
deep ; its Legs and Feet are of the fame Colour with the 
Bill; the whole Head, Neck, Breaft, Belly, Thighs and 
Tail underneath, as alfo the middle Part of the Wings 
above, are cloath'd with moft lovely and elegant red Fea- 
thers ; the Pinion of the Wing is adorn'd with a beautiful 
yellow ; in the middle of the Wing beloAv the red is a Row 
of bright grafs-green Feathers ; all the Quill Feathers beloAv 
them are of a bright ultramarine blue, as is alfo the upper 
Part of the Tail and Rump, or lower Part of the Back ; the 
Tail is ten Inches long, running much beyond the Wings. 
The Hen Bird of this Kind is blue and yellow. They are 
brought from both Eaji and JVeJl-Indies. 




Ths 



r. ^ 






( i^ ) 
The JJh'Coloufd Parrot. 



Numb. XII. 

THIS Bird is of the bignefs of a tame Tigeon] the 
Bill is black; the Noftrils near to one another, in 
the upper Part of the Bill next the Head^ which Part is co- 
ver'd with a naked Skin (which Figure and Situation of 
the Noftrils is the fame in all thofe of the Parrot Kind) 
the whole Body is of an uniform Colour, viz. a dark cine- 
reous ; yet the lower Part of the Back, Belly and the 
Rump is paler than the reft of the Body, and almoft 
white. The Tail is of a red Vermilion Colour, very fliort, 
and fcarce reaching farther than the ends of the Wings: 
The Region of the Eyes (and Sides of the Head round the 
Eyes) is M^hite, and bare of Feathers : The Feathers of 
the Head and Neck are iliorter than the others. This 
Rind comes from Eaji-India, 







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T^UTi- iZllrin de^in. 



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a.FiV ' oir 



( M ) 

The Laurey from the Brafils, 

Numb. XIII, 

THIS Bird is fomething bigger than a Pigeon; the 
Bill large, of a pale BufF Colour; the Irides of the 
Eye yellow, the Pupil black ; on the top of the Head it hath 
a tuft of Feathers of a bright blue ; all the reft of the Head 
and Neck are of a Scarlet Colour, below that a beautifol 
Ring of yellow; the Breaft and upper Part of the Back 
is alfo Scarlet, the covert Feathers of the Wings green 
intermixt with yellow. The Quill Feathers are of a beau- 
tiful ultramarine blue ; the lower Part of the Back, Belly 
and Thighs, are white intermixt with rofe Colour, ending 
near the Tail with a Mixture of Scarlet. The Tail is pur- 
ple intermixt with a redifh brown ; the Legs and Feet are 
Alh-colour'd, the Claws black. This Bird is the moft 
beautiful of all the Parrot Kind that I have yet feen; it 
is very docible, learning any Language, and pronouncing 
very articulately any thing he is taught. I faw one of 
thefe Birds fold for twenty Guineas, by Mr. Bland^ at the 
Tyger on Tower-Hill, who has a great Colle6lion of fo- 
reign Birds. 




E The 



( 14 ) 

, ,,/, / The "^ack-Daw, Monedula; 

oJ(^ Numb. XIV. 

/it ^ . . 

TTS Length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail was 13 

-*- Inches and a half, the Breadth when the Wings are extended 2 Feet 

4 Inches, its Weight near 10 Ounces; the Bill flrong, from the Point to 

the Angles of the Mouth an Inch and a quarter long ; the Noftrils round, 

with a covert of little hairy Feathers over them and half the Bill ; the Tongue 

cloven, the Ir'td'is of the Eyes whitifh, the Ears large. 

The whole Plumage is black with a bluifh Glofs, except the hinder Part 
as far as the middle of the Neck, which inclines to light a£h Colour, as u 
alfo the Breaft and Belly, but lefs. 

The Number of prime Feathers in each Wing is lo, of which the firft 
/ is fhorter by half than the fecond, the third and fourth the longeft of all; 
from the eleventh the fix following have the tops of their Vanes fo running 
forth on each fide above their Shafts, that they feem to be notched in their 
tops, and from the Angle of that Notch the Shaft: of the Feather is conti- 
nued in form of a Briftle. The Tail is made up of twelve Feathers, 
whereof the exterior are fomewhat fhorter ; the Length of the Tail is j 
Inches and a half. ' ' 

The back Toe and Claw are larger than in other Birds are ufual; the out- 
moft Fore-toe is join'd to the middlemoft at the bottom, as in the reft of 
this kind ; it hath no Craw ; the Stomach is mufculous ; the Length of the 
Guts \V2.% 24 Inches. It feeds on Ntits^ Fruits^ and InfeBs ; the Appendices 
or blind Guts fmall, and fcarce an Inch long. 

■ Its Head is large in refped: to its Body; he feems to be a crafty and in- 
genious Bird; they ufually frequent and build in ancient Cajiles^ Churches^ 
and ruinous Buddings^ in great Numbers, and fometimes in Trees ; they 
lay five or fix Eggs, lelTer and paler, and having fewer Spots than thoie 
of Crows. 






The 



tH- 




%j . dUn'fV de^uv. 



T^l^me^ti-^ 



Ow-f-e^e 



^Ae ^cAZ)an/ 



( 'J) 

7%e Magpy or Pianet. Pica Varia Caudata. /' /} <^ 



Numb. XV. 



IT7. 



ITS Length from the Tip of the BUI to the End of the Tail is 18 Inches and a half. 
Breadth when the Wings are expanded 23 Inches and a half; Weight is 8 Ounces and 
5 Drams ; Bill i Inch and three quarters, black, thick and ftrong, the upper Chap fome- 
what crooked and fharp-pointed ; the Tongue cloven at the End, and black; the Sides of 
theFilTure of the Palate rough with Hair like Excrefcences ; the Noftrils round, and be- 
fet with refleiled briftly Hairs ; the Iridei of the Eyes are of a pale Hazel Colour, in the 
nidating Membranes is feen a yellow Spot, 

The Head, Neck, Back, Rump and lower Belly are of a black Colour; the lower 
Part of the Back near the Rump is more dilute, and inclining to cinereous ; the Breail 
and Sides are white, as alfo the firft Joint of the Wing ; the Wings are fmaller than the 
Bignefs of the Body would feem to require. The Tail and prime Feathers of the Wings 
glifter with very beautiful Colours (but obfcure) of green, purple and blue mingled, like 
thofe of the Rainbow, only in the exterior Vanes, the Number of Beam Feathers are 20, 
of which the outmoft is fhorter by half than the fecond, the fecond than the third, and 
the third fliortcr than the fourth, but not by an equal Defed:, the fourth and fifth are 
the longeft of all ; the eleven foremoft about their middle Part on the Infide of the Shaft 
are white, the white Part from the extreme Feather gradually decreafing, till in the tenth 
it be contraded into a great Spot only. 

The Tail is made up of 12 Feathers, of which the two middlemofl are the longeft, 
being by Meafurc eight and a half or nine Inches long, the two next them above an Inch 
fhorter, and fo the reft in Proportion ; the middle Feathers of the Tail have their Bottoms 
green, their Middles blue, and their Tops of a purple Colour. 

The Feet and Claws are black, the loweft Bone of the outmofl Fore-toe is joined to 
that of the middle. 

The Length of the Gut was 24 Inches, of the blind Guts half an Inch ; it hath a Gall 
Bladder and a long Spleen, the Stomach not very flefhy, and having its Echinus. 

This Bird is eafily taught to fpeak, and more plainly when the String of his Tongue is 
cut, and imitates Man's Voice very articulately; they are very mifchievous when let out 
of their Cages, ftealing and hiding every Thing they can carry away. 

They build their Nefts in Trees with great Art and Cunning, fencing them round on 
the Out-fide both above and below with fharp Thorns, leaving only one Hole for them- 
fclves to pafs in and out. It lays 6 or 8 Eggs at once, feldom more, greater and paler 
than the Crows, and very thick fpotted with black. 

Its Food is Infeds of the Grub and Beetle Kind, Flefh of Beafts, and fometimes it will 
fet upon fmall Birds, and kill and devour them. 



"The 



( i<5) 



ffcCLu-qk-uV, The Jay, Pica GlandariaJ 



Numb: XVI. 

TS Length from the point of the Bill to the end of the Tail was 14 Inches; its 
Breadth when the Wings are extended 2 1 Inches and a half, its Weight 7 Ounces ; 
the Bill dark a(h Colour inclining to black, ftrong, near an Inch and a half long j 
the Tongue black, thin, pellucid, and cloven at the tip ; the Irides of the Eyes white ; 
the Feathers of the Head and Body in this Bird are taller, flenderer, and fland more ered 
than ordinary. Near on the lower Chap of the Bill are two black Spots, on each Side 
one. The Chin and lower Part of the Belly whitifh, elfe the Breaft and Belly are of a 
mixt cinereous and red; theRunnp above is white, the Back red, with a Mixture of blue; 
the Feathers on the Crown of the Head variegated with black and white. 

The Sails of the Wings are in Number 20, of which the firft is Shorter by half than 
the fecond, the fourth the longeft (being by Meafure 6 Inches and a quarter) the firfh or 
outmoflis black, the bottom or lower Part white, which is proper to it alone i the 6 next 
following have their exterior Vanes of an afli ColoQr, the 3 next likewife, but more ob- 
fcurc and mingled with blue, being alfo marked toward their Bottoms with tranfverfe black 
and white Strokes; the 5 fucceeding have their exterior Vanes half white, half black, 17/2;. 
the lower half white, the upper black, but fo that each Extremity of the white is ter- 
minated with blue; the fixteenth in place of the white of the four precedent hath tranf- 
verfe blue, black and white Spots ; the feventeenth is black, having one or two blue Spots ; 
the eighteenth is black with fomc little red ; the nineteenth red with the tip black, the 
under-fides of all the Feathers of the Wing are of a dark or dusky Colour. The Covert 
Feathers of the 1 5 exterior Sails arc very beautiful, being variegated or checquer'd with 
black, white, and lovely fhining blue Lines, the reft of the tuvert Feathers being black. 

The Tail is 6 Inches and a quarter long, confifting of 1 2 Feathers wholly black except 
toward their Roots: Under the Rump there is fomething of a blue mingled with cinereous. 

The Feet and Toes are of a ferrugineous dufky Colour, the middle Toe is the longeft, 
the outmoft is equal to the back Toe, the lower Joint of the outmoft Toe is joined to 
the middlemoft, the back Claw is the greateft. 

The Eggs are cinereous, with darker Spots fcarcc appearing ; the Guts are 24 Inches 
long, the blind Guts but half an Inch; it hath a Gall and a long Spleen : The Stomach 
or Gizzard not very flefhy, and having its Echinus, wherein were found -^(:or«5, &c. (whence 
it got the Name of Pica Glandaria) It feeds alfo on Cherries, (of which it is very greedy) 
Goosberries and Rajps, and other Fruit. 

The Female diiiers little or nothing from the Male either in Bignefs or Colour, fo that 
it is very difficult to know them afunder. 

It will learn to imitate Man's Voice, and ipeaks very articulately. 



Tke 




J'^fC-a ^/afii//:7fy/z 



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^^'//7/~ PA-.i lfl7,u-/<77t:z ra/?£nj^ . -T/ie J^7i//ir-/7i tAe fap^ of t9cro^^M>p^ . 



The Jay from Bengal Pica Glandaria Bengalenfis. 

Numb. XVII. 

T is fomething bigger than our EfigUJh Jay ; the Bill 
is of an alh Colour ; the Top of the Head blue ; the 
Neck and Bread: cinereous with a Mixture of light brown 
and red ; the Wings are blue, as alfo the under Part of 
the Belly and Thighs ; the Back and Rump are of a mud- 
dy green Colour ; the Tail is of a dark blue next the Body, 
of a pale or bright blue in the Middle, and dark towards 
the End : Its Legs and Feet are of a yellowifh brown ; the 
Claws black. I am obliged to Mr. Dandridge for the 
Draught of this Bird, who received it from his Kinfraan 
Jojeph Dandridge refiding at Fort St. George in the Bay of 
Bengal^ who drew it from the natural Bird, with the 
Draughts of feveral other fine Birds of that Country, 
ivhich I defign to engrave in the next Volume, God^ 
willing. 

I beg Pardon for being fo particular as to the Names of 
the Gentlemen and Reception of this Bird ; this I do be-- 
caufe I would not have the Gentlemen, that are Encou- 
ragers of the Work, think I would endeavour to engrave 
any Bird which I thought fictitious. 




F Th 



( i8 ) 

TJje Green Woodpecker. ' Picus Viridis. 

fjJcLlu^^o^ ^^^\,^ XVIII. 

' ^7 ■ "Y TS Length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail is 14 Inches and a half; 

\ Breadth of the Wings when extended, 20 Inches and a half; Weight 6 Ounces 

and a half ; the Bill from the Point to the Angles of the Mouth is one Inch and three 

Quarters long, black, hard, flrong, triangular, ending in a blunt Point ; a redifh Circle- 

limmediately encompaffes the Pupil of the Eye, the reft of the Irh being white ; the 

Tongue when ftretched out is 6 Inches long, ending in a fliarp, bony Subftance, rough 

underneath, wherewith it takes the Infeds from the Bodies of the Trees, of which Kind 

the Ant is its chief Food ; the Top of the Head is of a crimfon Colour fpotted with 

black ; the Eyes are encompaffed with black ; under the black on each Side is another 

red Spot, which is peculiar to the Cock ; the Throat, Breaft and Belly are of a pale green ; 

the Back, Neck and lefTer Rows of covert Feathers of the Wings green ; the Rump of 

a pale yellow or ftraw Colour ; the Feathers under the Tail are crofled with tranfverlc 

-dufky Lines fpotted with whire Spots, the inner Webs of the fame Colour with the pre- 

■ ceding ; the Feathers covering the Roots of the Flags underneath are of a pale green, with 

tranfverfe dufky Lines. The Tail confifts of 10 Feathers, ftiff and bending inwards, 

which by reafon the Shaft reaches not to the end of the Webs, feems to be forked ; the 

two middlemoft Feathers are the longeft ; their Tips black ; elfe they are marked with 

crofs Bars above of a dark green alternately placed ; the leffer or outmoft have their Tops 

green and Bottoms black. 

The Feet and Toes are of a greenifh lead Colour ; the Claws dufky ; the Toes placed 
as in the reft of this Kind, two forward and two backward ; che loweft Bones of the fore 
Toes are joined together. It hath a large Gall an Inch and a half long ; the right Tefti- 
cle round and the left oblong and bent almoft into a Circle, this is natural and not acci- 
dental, being the fame in feveral Birds which were opened. It hath no blind Guts, but 
in their Stead the ftreight Gut is dilated in that Place. Its Crop was full of AnU and 
Anti Eggs, and fats fometimes on the Ground near to the Ant-Hills, where it feeks its 
JFood. 

The Tips of the Shafts of the Tail Feathers in this and other Woodpeckers fecm broken 
or worn off by their retting upon them in climbing. 

This Kind lays 5 or 6 Eggs at once, and 6 young ones have been found in a Neil 
.together. 




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ffrzu^jpptteAtfbt^^ ■ ' 



( XP ) 

The greater [potted Woodpecker. PIcus varius major. A>>'. 

Numb. XIX. 

ITS Length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail is ii Inches; Breadth 
of the Wings when extended, one Foot two Inches ; Weight two Ounces and three 
Quarters ; the Bill an Inch and a Quarter long, ftrcight, black, thicker at the Head, and 
flenderer by Degrees, ending in a {harp Point, being of a Pyramidal Figure, and chan- 
nel'd with a Furrow or two ; the Noftrils round and covered with black Briftles ; the Iri" 
des of the Eyes red^ the Tongue made like that of the green Woodpecker. 

On the hind part of the Head is a Line of Crimfon or Vermilion red reaching from white 
to white in each Cheek; [in the Cock, not in the Hen.] In the Hen the Throat and 
Breaft are of a dirty yellowifti white ; the lower Belly under the Tail is of a lovely red 
or crimfon Colour ; the Feathers encompafling the Bafe of the upper Chap, and thofs 
about the Eyes and Ears are white ; the Head is black, with a da{h of a (hining green ; - • 

the Back alfo black ; at the Infertion of the Wings on each Side is a great white Spot ; 
from the Corners of the Mouth a broad, black Stroak reaches on to the Back ; juft below 
the Head another black Line croifes this. The flag Feathers of the Wings are in Number 20, 
(of which the outermoft is the fhorteftj black and marked with femicircular white Spots ; 
the interior corert Feathers of the Wings are white, and make up part of thofe white 
Spots, mentioned on the Shoulders ; the middlcmoft are wholly black ; the exterior have 
one or two white Spots ; the Ridge or Bafe of the Wing is white. 

The Tail is 3 Inches and a half long made up of 10 Feathers being ftrong, ftiff, fliarp-f 
pointed and bending inwards ; the Shafts, as in others, are not produced to the outmoil 
Tip (perchance worn or broken off with climbing) by reafon whereof the Feathers ap- 
pear forked ; the outmoft tail Feather on each Side is fmall, black, and has a white Spot 
on the exterior Web ; in the two next the lower Part is black and the reft white with two 
tranfverfe black Spots or Stroaks, of which the upper cuts both Webs of the Feather, 
the lower only the interior ; in the third the black reacheth higher, and the white Part 
hath only one tranfverfe black Stroak ; the fourth Pair arc all black, having only a femi- 
circular Spot of white toward the Top, the very Tip being of a redifh white; the two 
middlemoft are wholly black; thefe Spots differ in fome Birds both in the Wings and TaiL 
The Feet and Legs are of a lead Colour, the Toes ftanding 2 forward and 2 backward, as 
in others of this Kind ; the 2 fore Toes likewifc are conneded from the Divarication-place 
to the firfl Joint. 

It hath a fmall Liver with a Gall annexed ; the Breail-bone is very long, produced to 
the Vent ; it hath likewife a fmall Gizzard or Stomach, in which when diffedted were 
found Centipedes and Beetles ; the Guts lie deep within the Body, that they be not hurt 
when the Bird turns her Head downwards and flrikes Trees with her Bill. It is common 
BJ this and the reft of this Kind to want the blind Guts. 



^ 



( io ) 

fj^ULu^^^^ ^he lejfer fpotted Woodpecker, Picus Varius Minor. 

/^^- Numb. XX. 

ITS Length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail is 5 Inches 
and a half; Breadth when the Wings are extended 10 Inches and a 
quarter ; Weight i ^ Drams and a half. This is for Shape and Colour 
like the laft defcribed, but much lefs. 

The Tail confifted of ten Feathers, from the exterior to the middle- 
moft gradually longer each than other, the two middlemoft being the 
longeft ; of thefe the four middlemoft are wholly black, ftrong, fharp and 
bending inward as in the reft of this Kind, fo made to fuftain the Body 
when it climbs Trees ; the three exterior are lefs fharp, of which thc- 
outmoft and leaft hath the Bottoms black, and their upper part white, 
with two tranfverfe black Spots; in the next the black Part is extended 
in the inner Web as far as the fecond tranfverfe black Spot ; in the outer the 
white reacheth lower, yet hath it only one tranfverfe black Spot toward 
the Top ; the third is black, having only the Tip white. 

The Throat, Breaft and Belly are of a fordid white, above the Noftrik 
it is of a dusky Colour, and on the top of the Head it hath a broad Streak 
of red, the hinder Part of the Head is black ; round the Eyes to the mid- 
dle of the Neck on both Sides is a broad Bed of white Feathers terminated 
with black, (only the Feathers that cover the Ears are of the fame Colour 
of the Breaft.) The upper part of the Back, and the upper covert Feathers 
of the Wings are black ; the prime Feathers and the reft of the covert 
Feathers are elegantly fpotted with femicircular Spots of white ; the mid- 
dle Part of the Back is white with crofs Lines of black: The Bill, 
Tongue, Jr'tdes-, Feet and Toes are like thofe of the laft defcribed ; the 
.Claws black and crooked ; the fame Number of prime Feathers in Wings 
and Tail ; the Stomach difleded was full of Infeds. 

It wants the Appendices or blind Guts, like the reft of this Kind. The 
Hen differs from the Cock, inftead of a read Streak on the Top of the 
Head fhe has a white. 

Aldrovandus writes, that this Kind wants thofe red Spots on the Head 
and Rump; which is true of the Female, but not of the Male, for his 
Head is marked with a red Spot. 

The 



10 






FicJlJ fiUTlCi Afl724>J 




PetitJF'i'LHirAfaf^cte. 



.3-1 




£/^^ . /2//^tf2 ^^^^ . 



^ZOT'Ot^i/^ 



loT'iXr^. 



//le ^f^-n^c/c . 



( 21 ) ^^^ 

The PF'r^neck: lynx five Torquilla. ^^ ^ ^ 



Numb. XXI. 

ITS Length from the tip of the Bill to the etid of the Tail is 7 Inche* 
and a half; the Breadth i o laches when the Wings are extended ; 
Weight one Ounce. It is of the Bignefs of the common hark^ or fbme- 
what lefs ; the Bill is fliort, fmaller and lefs triangular than in the reft of 
this Kind, of a lead Colour. The Tongue round, ending in a (harp, bony 
Thorn, which it can dart out to a great Length, and draw it in again like 
the reft of this Kind ; the Ir'tdes of the Eyes of a hafel Colour ; the Feet and 
Legs fhort, of a pale lead Colour or rather flefti Colour. 

It could rufBe up the Feathers of its Head, fo as to make them appear 
Hke a Creft as doth the Ja'^ ; the Plumage is fo elegantly and curioufly co- 
lour'd, that it is very difficult in Words to defcribe it, the upper part of the 
Body being variegated with white, black, redifti, dusky and afh Colour ; 
from the Crown of the Head all along the Middle of the Back runs a Lift 
of black ; the Head is cinereous, with tranfverfe white, black and red Lines 5 
The Throat and lower Belly are yellow, with tranfverfe black Lines ; the 
middle of the Breaft is whiter, with fewer Lines ^ the Feathers covering 
the bottom of the prime Wing Feathers are yellow, with tranfverfe black 
Lines ; the Rump is more afh colour'd than the Head, with white Spot* 
and tranfverfe black Lines. 

The prime Wing Feathers are in Number 19, the firftor outmoft being 
fiiQrter than the fecond, black and fpotted with great white Spots ; the 
whole Wing is colour'd and fpotted with the fame Colours of the Body 
before mentioned. The Tail Feathers are 1 o, not fharp-pointed, nor ftiff, 
nor bending inwards as in the reft of the Wood-pecker Kind \ 1 Inches and 
a half long ; of a cinereous Colour crofted at large Intervals with Bars of 
Black J between them powdered and fprinkled with fmall Specks of black.- 

The Toes are fo difpofed as in the reft of this Kind, 2 forward and r 
backward ; it wants the blind Guts like the other Wood-peckers ; the Length 
of the Guts was 9 Inches long : It ftrangely and ridiculoufly turns its Head 
back to its Shoulders, whence by Gaza it is called Torqudla ; it feeds upon. 
AntSf which it ftrikes with its Tongue, and then contradling it fwallows- 
them without ever touching them with her Bill, having a glutinous Matter 
fticking on the Tongue. The Hen is paler than the Cock, being of a/ 
mote cinereous Colour. 

G 7%e' 



/3<P. 



(") 

The Black Game. Tetrao feu Urogallus minor. 

Numb. XXII. 

ITS Length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail is 22 Inches ; its Breadth 
when the Wings are extended, 36 Inches; its Weight 48 Ounces; (this Bird I had 
from Sir Robert Abdy out of Wejimoreland, from which generous Gentleman I have receiv'd 
ja great many curious Birds) it was all black, with a fhining blue Glofs on the Edges of 
the Feathers of the Neck and Back ; the Legs dark gray ; the Toes pedinated on both 
Sides. It had in each Wing 26 quill Feathers with 2 tranfverfe Bars of white, and a Spot 
of the fame on each Shoulder; the Tail was made up of 16 Feathers, the exterior of 
which was near 7 Inches long, the interior do not exceed 4 Inches ; the 3 exterior Feathers 
are longer than the reft and bending outwards ; the fourth on each Side fhorter and leis 
rcflefted ; the Tail is of the fame Colour of the Body, only the Tips of a hoary white. 

The Bill is black and crooked; the upper Chap fomewhat prominent and gibbous; un- 
der the Tongue is a kind of a glandulous Subftance ; in the Pallet a Cavity imprefled equal 
CO the Tongue ; the Tongue is undivided, foft and fomewhat rough. 

The Eye-brows are bare and red ; the Ears large ; the Legs rough and feathered on the 
fore Part ; the Toes naked and conneded by a Membrane as far as the firft Joint ; the 
Claw of the middle Toe is on the infide thinned into an Edge; it had no Spurs. 

Its Guts are 51 Inches long; its blind Guts 24 Inches ftriate with 6 Lines; the Craw 
large and full of Ling or Heath, on the Tops of which they feed ; the Pouts do a long 
time accompany their Dams, even after they are come to their full Growth. 

The Cocks of the black Game keep together and the Hens by themfelves, and arc 
Seldom or never feen together ; their Time of feeding is the Morning and Evening, and 
in the Middle of the Day they retire to the Woods, and fometimes perch on Trees. 

They are frequent in the mountainous Parts of Darbyjhire, Wejimoreland, Cumberland 
and moft of the Northern Parts of England and Scotland. 

There is a large Species of this Kind in Norway, called I'ieure, as large as a Bujiard; the 
Head and Leg of which I received from my good Friend Mr. Boquet. It was all over 
grifly black with a beautiful fhining green Glofs on the Edges of the Feathers on the 
Neck and Breaft ; and having all the other Charaderifticks belonging to the former. It 
weighed 10 Pound, they are taken by the Boors in the inland and mountainous Parts 
of Micfcovia, and brought down to Archangel, and fent as a choice Prefent to our Englijh 
•Merchants. 




The 



22 




JS. t2ll'T/n'de/&ny. 



lle^ma ^mi //riya//M mi9wr. T/ie I'^u/L <y6i7ne JZeaM^ Cb-cA jtt ^Trfv^ . 



'•■fS^-15, 




^■fV. 



J^a^mtuJ allzrzt ^NaJ . 



I7u Cack,^?ied 




■Za^nrpM^ alle/ra^yiE'm/hia. . 



( H )• 

T/je Red Gam fy or More-Cock. Lagopus altera, Mas. 




Z 




Numb. XXm, XXIV. Z/')^. 

THIS Bird is half as big again as the common Partridge ; (being confiderably like" 
it in Shape ) its Feet and Legs are feathered down to the Claws as in the black 
Game and others of this Species ; its Bill is (hort and blackifh ; its Noftrils elegantly 
fpecklcd with white and black Feathers ; it hath a fcarlet-colour'd naked Skin above 
each Eye in Form of a Crcfcent in place of Eye-brows, which in the Cock arc much 
broader, and have a Border of loofc Flefli like a Fringe or Creft, at the Bafis of the 
lower Chap; on each Side is a pretty large white Spot, but not fo in the Female; 
Moreover the Male differs from the Female in being much redder, the whole Body 
having no other Mixture than black and red with tranfverfe Lines a-crofs each Feather, 
the red exceeding the black, except on the Back and the Top of the Shoulders, where 
the black Spots are broader. 

The Female is of a paler red, and variegated with whitifh Spots all over the Body 
and Wings ; the exterior Webs of the 3d and 4th prime Feathers of which are white, 
it having all other Chara£terifticks belonging to the Cock, the Sex only excepted. 

In each Wing are 24 Feathers all dufky, except the exterior Edges of thofe next the 
Body, which are red ; the outmoft Feathers of the Wing are (horter than the fecond j 
the third the longeft of all ; the interior baftard Wing is made of white Feathers ; the 
Feathers alfo on the under fide of the Wings next to the Flags are white ; the Brcaft and 
Belly are almoft ahke, as to the Colour of the Plumage, with the Back in both Sexes. 

The Tail is more than a handful long, not forked, coniiftingof 16 Feathers, all black 
except the middlemoft, which are variegated with red and black ; the Flefh is very 
tender, elpecially in the younger ones, tho' not fo white as a Hen's ; they are frequent in 
the high Mountains of Derbyjloire, Torkfiire, WeJImoreland and Wales -, it lays 6, 7, or 8 
Eggs, being fcldom more than one Inch and three Quarters long, (harp at one End and 
all fpeckled with dark red Specks or Points, only towards the fharper End are one or two 
Beds void of Spots ; the younger are invefted with Belly-worms, which fometimes hang 
down, as they fly, a Foot long from behind. 

It delights to abide in the higheft Tops of the higheft Mountains, and with us never 
comes down into the Plains, and very feldom into the Sides of the Mountains ; the Flefli 
of thefe Birds do fuddenly corrupt, and therefore the Fowlers as foon as ever they take 
them exenterate them and ftuff the Cavity of the Belly with Ling ; the Tops of which 
arc their natural Food when alive. 



The 



(^4) 

The Pheafant. PhaflanusT 

, , Numb. XXV, XXVI. 

^^ J ^"y TS Length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail is 36 Inches; Breadth 

/ S3. '\. °^ ^^ Wings when extended 3 3 Inches ; they differ in Weight according as they 

.are fatter and leaner ; their common Weight is 45 Ounces when in Flefh, fome more 
fome lefs ; the Bill, like thofe of other granivorous Birds, from the Tip to the Angles of 
the Mouth an Inch and three Quarters long, in old Birds whitifh ; it hath on both Sides a 
vfls(hy and tuberous Membrane, by which it is above joined to the Head, under which 
the Noftrils are as it were hid ; the Irides of the Eyes yellow ; a red fcarlet Colour pow- 
dered with black Specks compafTes the Eye round for a good Breadth ; in the fore Part 
of the Head and at the Bafis of the upper Chap of the Bill the Feathers are black with 
.a kind of purple Glofs ; the Crown of the Head and upper Part of the Neck arc tindured 
with a dark green fhining like Silk, which is more dilute on the Crown of the Head. 
Thcfe Colours make an agreeable Change of dark blue or green, according as the Light 
and Shade falls thereon. It hath on both Sides of the Head about the Ears Feathers 
Clicking out like Horns; there grow alfo to the Ears in their lower Angle black Feathers 
longer than the reft; the Sides of the Neck and Throat are of a fliining purple Colour; 
the Feathers under the Chin and at the Angles of the Mouth are black with green Edgea 
^r Borders. 

Below the green the reft of the Neck, the Breaft, Shoulders, Middle of the Back and 
Sides under the Wings are clothed with moft beautiful Feathers, having their Bottoms 
black and their Edges tindlured with a moft beautiful Colour, which, as it is diverfly object- 
ed, appears to the Light either black or purple; next to, the purple in each Feather is a 
crofs Line or Bed of a moft fplendid gold Colour ; below the Gold a fulvous Colour which 
reaches as low as the black Bottom ; the gold Colour is not immediately contiguous to 
the fulvous, but divided by an intermediate narrow Line of a fliining purplifti ; on the 
under Side of the Neck the Extremities of the Feathers are painted with a black Spot 
^f the Figure of a Parabola ; the Shafts of all are fulvous ; the whole Bird is variegated 
with thele Colours darker and Ughter, fome Feathers here and there having Spots and 
Lines of white ; the two middlcmoft Feathers of the Tail arc 22 Inches long, having on 
each Side 8 more which decreafc both in Length and Bignefs, the exterior being the 
(horteft and kaft ; they are of an olive Colour ; on the Sides ferrugineous with a caft of 
green ; near the Shafts adorned with black Spots on each Side in the two longeft Feathers, 
and on the others on the exterior Side only. 

The Legs, Feet, Toes and Claws are of a horn Colour; the Toes and Claws darker 
than the Legs ; a thick Membrane connedls the Toes, which is not found in any other 
of the pulveratricious Birds ; the Legs are armed with Spurs fliort, ftiarp and black. 
The Hen is not fo beautiful as the Cock, being almoft of the Colour of a Quail but 
darker. 

They live in the Woods and feed upon Acorns, Berries, Grains, Seeds and Infeds, and 
rather frequent the Coppice-woods, than where there are only Timber-trees. 

All Authors give to the Pheafant, for the Goodnefs of his Flefti and delicate Tafte, the 
firft Place at the Table among Birds, and is in high Efteem with great Perfonages; 
it is better when killed by a Hawk than when fhot or otherwife taken, the Flefh being 
more ihort and tender. 

'The 



^ J 



3L^ 




-?* 




i 



J2fe4 




;1 




J'err/cx. . 



Jy'-Percfrzx:.. 






The Partridge. Perdix Cinerea. //? ,, // 

Numb. XXVII. /f^. 

IT S Length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail is i S Inches and three 
quarters ; Breadth 2q Inches 5 its Weight 15- Ounces. 

The Bill in young Partridges is of a dufky yellow Colour, but in old Birds It grows 
white ; the Irides of the Eyes are a little yellowifh ; under the Eyes are certain red Ex- 
crelcencies j the Chin and Sides of the Head are of a fafFron-colour ; the Cock hath under 
his Breaft a red femicircular Figure, refembling a Horfe-fhoe ; below the Chin, as far as 
the Horfe-fhoe Mark, is of a blue cinereous adorned with tranfverfe black Lines j under 
that Mark the Colour fades into a pale cinereous yellow ; the longer Feathers on the Sides 
of the Breaft and Belly have each of them a great tranfverfe red Spot, their Shafts being 
white ; the upper Side of the Body is party-coloured of red, cinereous and black. 

The prime Feathers in each Wing are about z-^ in Number, of which the foremoft 
are dufky, with tranfverfe yellowifh white Spots ; the longefl Feather of the Wing is five 
Inches and a quarter ; the interior covert Feathers of the Wings, and the long Feathers 
fpringino- from the Shoulders have their Shafts of a yellowifh white. 

The Tail is made up of 18 Feathers ; the four middlemofl Feathers are party-coloured 
hke the reft on the Body ; the other y on each Side are of a fordid red with cinereous Tips- ; 
The Legs are bare below the Knee, and have no Appearance of Spurs ; in the young they 
are greenifh, but in the old ones whitifh ; the Toes are joined together with a Membrane 
as in the Heathcocks. 

It hath a great Craw and mufculous Stomach or Gizzard, and a Gall-bladder; for the 
Tafle and Wholfomnefs of its Flefh it is defervedly preferred before all other Birds ; it 
feeds upon Ants and Ants Eggs, Corn and other Grains ; it likewife feeds on green Corn 
in the Winter, at which Time its Flefh is not fo commendable as in Summer and Autumn, 
when it hath its Fill of the grain Corn. 

The Comtnoti Partridge is a multiparous Bird laying 16 or i8 Eggs before it fits; its 
Flights are low and very fwift but fliort, by reafon of the Heavinefs of its Body and Short- 
nefs of its Wings; they are more, rare and fell dearer in Jf<2/y than v/ith us ; in Winter they 
accompany together the old ones with their Brood, which we call a Covy of Partridges, 
from the French Word Cowuee or Flock of thofe Fowls ; in the Spring-time when they 
pair together, they are obliged to part from the old ones, who beat them away. 

When any one comes near their Nefl, they caft themfelves down as if lame to draw or 
intice them to follow, when they have got them a good Way from their Neft, fly directly- 
away; and when all is quiet call together their Brood, who prefently run to the Voice of 
their Dams. They likewife call one another together towards Sun-fet. 



II ne 



The New^Eiiglafid Partridge^ 

Numb. XXVIII. 

THIS Bird is not fobig as our common Partridge ; its 
Bill is fliorc, black and crooked like that of a Par- 
tridge's ; the Eyes large ; the Irides yellow ; the Head, 
Back and Wings are coloured nearly refembling that of the 
red-legg'd Partridge, but more motled with black on the 
Back, and white on the hind Part of the Neck ; the Breaft 
and Belly are of a yellowilh Colour with tranfverfe Lines 
of black; the Thighs and lower Part of the Belly near 
the Tail are yellowiili and fpotted with redifli brown ; the 
Tail is fliort and brown after the manner of a common 
Partridge ; the Legs and Feet are of a light brown Colour ; 
the Claws black. Thefe I had from William Lydal Poul- 
terer, who bought them of a New-England Captain, who 
brought them out of that Country. I fed them on Wheat 
and Hemp-feed for fome Time, which they feemed to like 
very well. The Right Honourable Thomas Lord Trevor 
kept them with his Pheafants a long Time after. 




The 



c?<y 




J^/r2iu; ^aiTi ^-/Tip//^ J^e/sCij' z^fin. -eai^ ^^n^/e^rre- 



/^Jl'en'^ JJfz^lana J'.i rtnJ^^ 



cJ^ 



^ 




Ct/tc-Tie^^ZefTT/lu ^ 



The Red'hgg'd Cartridge. Perdix RufFa. ffc-Un^U^ 

Numb. XXIX. Z*^- 

ITS Length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail is 1 8 Inches ; 
the Breadth when the Wings are extended, 2 2 Inches ; its Weight 1 4 
Ounces ; the Ir'tdes of the Eyes red ; the Bill, Legs and Feet alfo red ; the 
Claws dusky ; the Toes as far as the firft Joint conne6lcd by a Membrane 
intervening ; it has fmall Spurs ; the Soles of the Feet are of a dirty yellow. 

The Head, Neck, Breaft and Rump are afli-coloured , as alfo the 
outer Part of the Thighs ; the lower Part of the Neck and Back tinc- 
tured with a redifli brown Colour; the Cheeks under the Eyes, and the 
Chin to the Middle of the Throat white, yet in the very Angle of the 
nether Chap is a fmall black Spot ; a black Border beginning from the 
Noftrils, and produced above the Eyes encompaffes this white Space ; the 
Neck below the black Line is cinereous ; the Breaft of a dilute red inclin- 
ing to yellow ; the Feathers on the Sides are painted with beautiful Colours ; 
the Tips of fome of them are black, and next the black they have tranf- 
verfe Lines of a pale yellow ; next the yellow a redifh brown ; the Bot- - 
toms of all are cinereous. 

The beam Feathers in each Wing are in Number x 5' ; the exterior where- 
of are dusky ; the interior of a dark cinereous, but the outer Edges of 
the third and fucceeding to the fifteenth, are of a white tindiured v^ith red. 
The Tail is four Inches long ; the two middlemoft Feathers are cinereous ; 
the exterior five on each Side have their upper half red and their lower ci- 
nereous. It hath a large Craw and mufculous Stomach or Gizzard, in 
which are found Caterpillars and Snails. 

This Kind is a Stranger to England^ but Is found in the Illes of Jerfey 
and Guernfey, which arc fubjed to our King ; it is of a more gentle Nature 
than our common Partridge^ and eafily made tame ; whereas the com- 
mon Partridge can hardly be induced to put off his wild Nature, fo as to 
go out and return home again like a tame Fowl : It feeds on Snails, Cater- 
pillars, Seed of Wheat and other Grain. ^ 



Tlje. 



/ f(-)- 



( i3 ) 

The ^a'll. Coturnix. 
J cf^ Numb. XXX; " 



\Uuqh-La 



ITS Length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail is 7 Inches and a half j 
the Breadth when the Wings are extended, 14 Inches and a quarter; it commonly 
weighs, when fat and flefhy, 3 Ounces and 14 Drams. / 

Its Bill from the tip to the corners of the Mouth is half an Inch long ; its Figure 
more depreffed and plain than in the reft of this Kind ; the lower Chap black, the upper 
of a pale dufky : The Irides of the Eyes are of a hazel Colour ; the Eyes have a nidating 
Membrane. 

The Breaft and Belly are of a dirty pale yellow; the Throat hath a little Mixture of 
red ; under the lower Chap of the Bill is a long and broad Stroak of black tending down- 
wards ; above the Eyes and along the Middle of the Head are whitifh Stroaks or Lines ; 
the Head has a Mixture of black, red and cinereous Colours in it ; the middle Part of 
each covert Feather of the Back and lower Part of the Neck is marked with a pale yel- 
lowifh Stroak, the reft of the Feathers being party-colour'd of black and redifli afti-colour ; 
under the Wings is a Bed of white terminated on each Side with a Border of red mingled 
with black. 

The Beam or quill Fcathcrc of thp Winge are. dnfky, crofled wirb pale Lines ; the 

leffer Rows of hard Feathers in the Wings wholly of one and the fame redifh Colour ; 
the Tail is fliort, not above an Inch and a half long, confifting of 1 2 Feathers of ablack- 
ifti Colour interrupted with pale red tranfverfe Lines. 

The Feet are of a pale flefti-colour covered with a Skin divided rather into Scales than, 
intire Rings ; the Soles of the Feet yellow ; the outer Toes, as far as the firft' Joint, sre 
connefted with the middlemoft by an intervening Membrane. 

It hath a Gall-bladder ; the Cock hath large Tefticles for the Bignefs of the Body, 
whence it may be thought to be a falacious Bird; it hath a mufculous Stomach or Giz- 
zard, and juft above the Stomach the Gullet is dilated into a Bag, which is called the 
Anti-ftomachj the interior Superficies whereof is granulated with papillary Glandules. 

For catching of Quails they ufe this Art : The Fov/ler betimes in the Morning having 
Spread his Net hides himfelf in the Corn and then calls with his Quail-pipe ; the Cock- 
Quail thinking it to be the Note of the Hen, comes direftly to the Call of the Pipe, 
and when under the Net, the Fowler fliews himfelf, at which the Bird endeavours to fly 
and is entangled in the Net and taken. They are Birds of Paffage and impatient of 
Cold. 




rjji 



..^0 




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( ^9 1 

The Bengal ^uail. Coturnix Bengalenfis. 

Numb. XXXI. 

THIS Bird is fomething bigger than our Quail; its 
Bill of a dark afh inclining to brown; the Corners 
of the Mouth red ; the Noftrils large and oblong ; the Irl- 
des of the Eyes whitilh. The Top of the Head is black and 
under that a Bed of yellow ; then a Line or Bar of black 
croiling from the Corners of the Mouth and encompaffing- 
the under Part of the Eye and round the back Part of the 
Head, and under that a Bed of white ; the Breaft^ Belly and 
Thighs are of a pale yellowilh bufF Colour ; the under Part 
next the Tail fpotted with red : The hind Part of the Neck, 
Back and covert Feathers of the Wings are of a yellowilh 
green, excepting a large Mark of a pale bluilli green on 
the Pinion of the Wings, and another of the fame Colour 
on the Rump. The quill or beam Feathers of the Wings 
are black; the leflcr Row of quill Feathers hath a Bar of 
white acrofs them, which covers the one third of the Middle 
of the Feathers. The Legs and Feet are of an orange- 
colour ; the Claws dark muddy red. 

This Bird was fent from the Bay of Bengal by Mr. Jofeph 
D^dridge with the] ^y. Plate 17. 




The 



( 30 ) 

ij/ilUufilo^ T/?^ Land-Rail y or Baker -Hen. Oitygometra. 

/y^' Numb. XXXII. 

T S Weight is 6 Ounces and i o Drams ; Length from the 
tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail 1 1 Inches and a half; 
to the end of the Claws 1 5 Inches ; Breadth when the Wings 
are extended, 20 Inches ; the Bill one Inch. 

This Bird is in Shape and Bignefs like to the Water Hen; 
the Body is narrow or compreffed fideways ; the lower Part 
of the Breall and Belly are white, as is alfo the Chin ; the 
Throat is of a more fordid or dirty Colour ; on the Head are 
two broad black Lines ; there is alfo a white Line from the 
Shoulders as in the More-Hen. The middle Part of the co- 
vert Feathers of the Back are black ; the Sides of a redijfh 
aili-colour ; the Thighs are variegated with tranfverfe white 
Lines; in each Wing are 23 quill Feathers; the lefler Rows 
of wing Feathers both above and below are of a deep yel- 
low, as alfo the Borders of the prime Feathers ; the Tail i& 
almofl: 2 Inches long made up of 12 Feathers ; the Bill is like 
the Water-hen's : the upper Mandible whitiih ; the nether 
dusky ; the Legs bare above the Knees ; the Feet whitiih ; 
in the Stomach when diffe^led are found Snails. 

It is called Rdlus or Gr alius from its ftalking ; the Italians' 
call it // re delle ^alie, as much as to fay, the great Quail 
or King of Quails; and it isfaid to be the Leader of the 
Quails, or their Guide when they go from one Place to an- 
other. 1 he French give it the fame Name as the Italians 
do, as Roy de Cailles and Mere des Cailles, 



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(30 

*rh€ M'tzzel-Bhd. Turdus Vifcivoius, 
Numb. XXXIII. 

IT S Length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail is 1 1 Inches j Breadth 
when the Wings are extended, i8 Inches ; Weight four Ounces and a half ; its Bill is 
ftreight like that of a Black-Bird's ; the upper Chap dufky and fomewhat longer than 
the lower ; the Tongue hard, channeled and flic at the Tip, horny and pellucid; the in- 
lide of the Mouth yellow ; the Noftrils large and almoft of an oval Figure ; the Irides, 
of the Eye hazel-coloured j the Legs and Feet yellowifh ; the Claws black ; the outer 
fore Toe fliicks to the middlemoft as far as the firft Joint, no Membrane intervening. The 
Head is of a dufky cinereous or lead Colour, the middlemofl Part of each Feather being 
blacker; the Back, Tail and Rump have fome Mixture of yellow ; in Summer it changes 
Colour and becomes more cinereous ; the under Side of the Body from the Bill to the 
Tail is fpeckled with pretty large blackifh Spots ; the upper Part of the Breaft,. Sides and 
Feathers under the Tail are of a yellowifli white ; the Middle of the Breaft whiter. 

The Number of quill Feathers in each Wing is 1 8, whereof the fecond being by Mea- 
fure the longeft is five Inches ; the Tail is four Inches and a half long, and made up of 
12 Feathers of equal Length. 

It hath no Craw ; the Gizzard is not very thick or flefliy, wherein are found Cater- 
pillars, &c. The Guts are great but Ihort ; the blind Guts little andfhort; it hath a pale 
coloured Liver and a Gall-bladder. 

It delights to fet on the Tops of high Trees, and in the Spring-time fings rarely wellj 
it abides with us all the Year, and is a folitary Bird accompanying Vv'ith only its Mate ; 
it is the worft Meat of all the Thrufh Kind ; in the Winter it feeds on Holly-berries^ each. 
Bird taking Poffeffion of his Tree, not permitting any other Birds to feed onitj, buc 
beat and drive them away, which occafions them to be eafily taken. 

They commonly build their Neft with rotten Twigs on the outfide, and dead Grals, Hay,, 
or Mofs within ; it feldom lays above four or five Eggs ; hatches three and never more than 
four young ones, and breeds twice a Year, feeding their young with the Berries of Mi- 
jleto-y from which they arc faid to be good for Convulfions and the Falling Sicknefs,, 
the whole Bird being dryed and a Penny-weight of the Powder given in fix Spoonfuls of 
black Cherry- water fwcetncd with Syrup of Piony, 




/ 



rht 



( J* ) 

Tloe Song Thmjh. Turdus fimpllciter di6lus. 

^//Z^y^^ Nu,„b..XXX.V. 

IT is from the point of tlie Bill to the end of the Tail nine Inches ; its Breadth, 
when the Wings are extended, fourteen Inches j Weight three Ounces. The Bill 
is an Inch long, of a dufky Colour ; the Tongue a little cloven ; the Mouth within 
lide yellow : The Irides of the Eyes are hazel-coloured ; the Spots are dufky ; the Breaft 
yellowifli ; the Belly white : The upper Surface of the Body all over of an Olive 
'Colour. 

This Bird in its Shape and Colour is fo like the Redwing, that they are hard 
to be diflinguiflied ; but this has larger Spots on the Breaft and Belly. The lelTer 
■covert Feathers of the under Side of the Wings are of an Orange Colour ; the lower 
■covert Feathers have yellow Tips. The quill Feathers in each Wing are in number 
jeighteen. The Tail is three Inches and a half long, made up of twelve Feathers. 

The Legs and Feet are of a light brown or dufl<:y Colour ; the bottoms of the 
"Feet yellow ; the outermofl Toe grows to the middle one as far as the firft Joint. 
It hath a Gall Bladder ; the Stomach or Gizzard is not fo thick and flefhy as in 
■other Birds of this Tribe. It feeds on Infers and Snails, as alfo Berries of White- 
Thorn and Mifletoc. It abides with us all the Year, and breeds in the Spring-time. 
It builds its Neft in thick Hedges, of Earth, Mofs, and Straw, and dawbs it with- 
•in with Clay. It lays five or fix Kggs of a bluifh green Colour, fpeckled with a 
few fmall black Spots, thin-fet. In the beginning of the Spring it fits on high Trees, 
^nd lings moft fweetly. It is a folitary Bird, filly, and eafily taken. 

For the delicate Tafte of its Flefh it is highly and defervedly commended by all. 
It is a rare Song-Bird, as well for the great Variety of its Notes, as its long con- 
tinuance in Song (which is at leaft nine Months in the Year.) They breed in Aprils 
May, and June ; the firft Brood always prove the beft Birds. They may be taken at 
fourteen or fifteen Days old, and be kept warm and neat, and fed with raw Meat, 
Bread, and Hemp feed bruifed, the Meat chopt, and the Bread a little wet, and then 
mixed together. When they are feathered put them in a large Cage with two or three 
large Perches in it, and dry Mofs at bottom. You may by degrees entirely wean them 
of Flefh, and give them only Bread and Hempfeed. Give them frefh Water twice a 
Week to wafli themfelves, oiherwifc they will not thrive. If they are kept dirty, 
ihey are fubjed to the Cramp. 



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( 33 ) 



The Red^JVing, Turdus Iliacus. 



Numb. XXXV. 

ITS Length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail is nine Tnchesa, 
Breadth one Foot two Inches and a quarter, Weight two Ounces and ai 
half and two Drams ; its Bill is an Inch long, the upper Mandible dusky,, 
the lower partly dusky, partly yellow ; its Tongue is hard and rough, the: 
tip being divided into many Filaments ; the infide of the Mouth is yellow ;, 
the/r/</^5.of theEyes are of a dark hazel Colour, the Legs and Feet pale^ 
the outer Toe is joined to the middle below, as in the reft of this kind>. 

The upper fide of the Body is of the fame Colour of the Song Thrujh ;•, 
the Breaft not fo fpotted ; the covert Feathers of the underfide of the Wings. 
and of the lides of. the Body under the Wings, which in the Song Thr-ujh' 
are of a pale yellowiOi red, in this kind are of a deep redifli Orange: 
Colour ; by which Mark, and flying in Companies, they are diftinguilhed 
from the other Thrufhes. The Belly is white as in the Fieldfare ; the: 
Throat and Breaft are yellowifti^ fpotted with dusky Spots, which take up> 
the middle part of the Feathers ; the fldes of the Breaft and Belly are im 
like manner fpotted ; the Spots a,re lefs, Jaut thicker fet than in the Mavh.^ 
Above the Eyes is a long Spot of a Clay Colour, reaching from the Bill 
almoft to the hinder part of the Head. 

The Number of quill Feathers in each Wing is eighteen.; thefe are- 
more red or Chefnut coloured than the reft of the Feathers ; they differ 
alfo in divers Birds, for in fome the Edges of the outermoft Feathers are 
white, which are not fo in otherso The tips of the two innermoft quill 
Feathers are white, as alfo the tips of the fecond row of Feathers, be- 
■ginning from the tenth. The Tail is three Inches and a half long, con- 
-ififting of twelve Feathers. 

The Gizzard is like that of the Fieldfare i, the blind Guts are fhort ;. 
the Liver is large for the Bignefs of its Body, and hath its Gall-Bladder 
appendent. Their Food is Snails, Infeds, and the Berries o£ White- 
Thorn. 

They come and go with the Fieldfare ; and it is not certainly knov/m 
•.-SroQi. what Country they come, or where they breed,. 



2^lf 



/<??• 



l4^LLLu^kL 



(34) 

The Fieldfare. Turdiis Pilaris. 
Numb, XXXVI. 

IT S Length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail is ten Inches, its Breadth, 
when the Wings are extended, fixteen Inches and three fourths, Weight four Ounces ; 
its Bill is three fourths of an Inch, yellow, except the tip, which is black ; the Tongue 
is rough, horny, and channel'd in the middle. The Edges of the Eye-lids are yellow, 
which make a yellow Circle round the Eye. The Noftrils are large, as are alfo the 
Ears ; in the lower part of the nidtating Membrane is a black Spot. The Feet and 
Claws are black ; the outer Toe is joined to the middle -one as far as the firft Joint. 

The Head, Neck, and Rump are a{h coloured, (in fome of a deep blue;) the Crown 
of the Head fprinkled with black Spots, (which in fome Birds are wanting j) the Back, 
Shoulders, and covert Feathers of the Wings are of a dark Chefnut Colour, the middle 
part of the Feathers being black : The Throat and upper part of the Breaft are yellow 
fpotted with black, the black Spots taking up the middle part of the Feathers. The 
Bottom of the Breaft and Belly are white ; the covert Feathers of the Sides under the 
ends of the Wings are white; thence a red or yellow Line feparates the white from the 
black: on each Side of the Cheek it hath a black Stroak reaching from the Bill to the 
Eyes. It hath alfo on both fides at the bottom of the Neck, juft at the fetting on of the 
Wings, a black Spot. The number of quill Feathers, as in the reft, are eighteen, the 
outermoft of which are black with white Edges, the inner have fomething of red ,• the 
covert Feathers of the infide of the Wings are white. The Tail is four Inches and a 
half long, compofed of twelve Feathers, \i£ a dark blue ur blackifti Colour ; only the 
tips of the outermoft Feathers are white, and the edges of the middlemoft afh coloured. 

The Liver is divided into two Lobes, and furniftied with its Gall-Bladder 3 the 
Mufcles of the Gizzard are not very thick j there was no Paflage found to convey the 
Gall into the Guts. 

Thefe are a Bird of Paflage, and fly in Flocks, coming into 'England about the be- 
ginning of Autumn, and ftay all the Winter, and go away in the Spring, not one Bird 
remaining behind, nor any young Bird or Neft ever to be found in England. Where 
they go or breed is not yet known ; fome fay they breed in Bohemia., others in Swedeni 
but there is no certainty for either of thefe Reports. Their Food is Juniper, Holly, 
and the Berries of the White-Thorn, and in open Weather on Worms and other Infe<fts, 
lying much upon Meadows and Pafture Ground. They are accounted good Meat, and 
preferable to any other of the Thruih Kind. 



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OTieSla^A Ba-r^Hen. i 



(35) 

The Black Bird, Meruli. ffdUca/Ju 

Numb. XXXVII. IQo. 

ITS Length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail is eleven 
Inches, Breadth fifteen Inches, Weight three Ounces and ten Drams. 

The Bill is an Inch long, in the Cock of a deep yellow ; in the Hen 
the tip and upper part is black : the Mouth in both Sexes is yellow within : 
the Bill of the Cock is black when young, and changes yellow at a Year 
old; he alfo changes to a black when he hath mewed his chicken Fea- 
thers. The Hen is rather brown, or of a dark ruffet, than black. The 
Cocks cannot be diftinguifhed from the Hens when young, but by the 
Ir'tdes of the Eye, which is yellow in the young Cocks. The Number 
of quill Feathers in ccn.li Wing are eighteen, of which the fourth is the 
longeft. The Tail is four Inches long, made up of twelve Feathers, the 
two outermoft of which are fomewhat fhorter than the reft. 

The Feet are black; the outermoft fore-Toe and the back-Toe are 
equal, and the outermoft toe joined to the middlemoft at bottom as in the 
reft of this kind. The Liver is divided into two Lobes, and hath its Gall- 
Bladder annexed. The Gizzard is not very flefhy nor thick, as in the 
reft. It feeds promifcuoufly upon Berries and Infeds. The Cock whiftles 
and fings very pleafantly all the Spring and Summer-time. 

They build their Neft very artificially, the outfide of Mofs, {lender 
Twigs, Bents and fibrous Roots cemented and joined together with Clay, 
dawbing the infide alfo all over with Clay, and lining it with a Co- 
vering of fmall Straws, Bents Hair, and other foft Matter, upon which 
fhe lays four or five Eggs, feldom more, of a bluiidi green Colour, full of 
dusky Spots and Lines. They love to wafli and prune their Feathers, and 
for the moft part fly fingly ; whence it took the Name Merula^ which 
Signifies to be folitary or fingle. 

It is faid they find fome of thefe Birds white on the Alps and other 
high Mountains, which Alteration of Colour is thought to proceed from 
their remaining continually in thofe cold Places. I had a Bird of this Kind 
finely mottled fent me by Sir Robert Abdy out of EJfex. 



The 



( 3^ ) 

The Red'Wing'd Starling. Sturnus Niger alis fuperne 

rubentibus. 

Numb. XXXVIII. 

ITS Length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail is nine 
Inches and a half, Breadth, when the Wings are expanded, fourteen 
Inches, Weight three Ounces and four Drams. It very much refembles 
the Starling in Shape and Size. The whole Bird is black, except the 
upper part of the Wings, which is a bright Scarlet, under that a fulvous 
yellow ; the Bill is of a dark a£h Colour, from the Point to the Angles 
of the Mouth an Inch long, very thick at the Head^ and ending in a 
fharp Point. The Pupil of the Fye is black, the Indes white ; the Bill 
under the Noftrils hath a Line of Crimfon which parts it from the black 
Feathers on the Head. The Legs, Feet and Claws are black. This 
Bird was fhot near London. I found in its Gizzard Grubs, Beetles and 
Imall Maggots. I believe it was a Cage-Bird, which had got loofe. 

It is a Native of Carol'ma and V'trgmta^ in which Countries they are 
very numerous. Mr. Catesby makes mention of its flying in Companies 
with the Purple-Daws^ and deftroying the Corn wherever they come^ 
being the moft deftrudive Birds in thofe Countries. 

He lays it makes its Neft over the Water amongft Reeds and Sedges, 
the tops of which they interweave fo artfully, making an Arch or Co- 
vering, under which they hang their Neft, (after the manner of the Reed- 
Spstrrow) and fo fecure from wet, that where the Tide flows it is obferved 
never to reach them. It is a very adlive and familiar Bird, and when kept 
in a Cage will learn to imitate human Speech. The Spaniards call them 
^omms.ndadores* See WtlLOrn. p. 391- 






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(37 ) 
The Ring Owzel Merula Torquata. /fclliL^ 

Numb. XXXIX. ^3^^ 

IT S Length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail Is eleven 
Inches ; Breadth, when the Wings are extended, leventeen Inches ; 
the Bill is an Inch long or more, of a dusky or blackifh Colour. The 
Mouth is yellow within fide, the Tongue rough : The Ir'tdes of the Eyes 
are of a dark hazel Colour ; the Legs and Feet dusky : the outer Toe is 
joined to the middle Toe as far as the firft Joint. The Colour of the 
upper Side of the Body is a dark brown or ruflet, inclining to black. 
The Ring or Collar is below the Throat, juft above the Breaft, of a 
whit« Colour, an Inch broad, of the Form of a Crefcent, the Horns 
ending at the Sides of the Neck. 

It hath eighteen quill Feathers in each Wing ; the Tail is made up of 
twelve Feathers four Inches long, the outermoft a little fhorter than the 
reft. The exterior Feathers of the Tail are blacker than the middlemoft \ 
the fmall Feathers under the Wings whitilh. 

It hath a large Gall and a round Spleen ; in the Stomach was found 
Infeds and Berries. This Bird was fhot by Sir Robert Abdy on a Rock 
by Crownford in Darbyjhire on the fourteenth of April. It is a fcarce 
Bird, and is in the moft mountainous Places of that Country, efpecially 
about the Feah 

The Guts are pretty large, but not very long, and confequently has 
not many Revolutions. The blind Guts are fmall, white, and very 
fhort, as in the reft of this Kind. The Stomach or Gizzard is of a 
moderate bignefs, filled partly with InfeBs and partly with the purple 
Juice of B'dl-berrksj which had alfo tindlured all the Excrements of 
the Guts, 




The 



//' 



The Starling Sturnus^ 
/iLUUj^^^ Numb. XL. 



Id 



IT S length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tall is nine Inches ; Breadth, 
when the Wings are extended, one Foot three Inches 5 it weigh'd three Ounces. It is 
of the Bignefs and Shape of the common Blackbird. Its Bill from the Tip to the Angles 
of the Mouth is an Inch and a quarter long, in the Cock of a pale yellow, in the Hen 
dusky, broader and more depreffed than in Thrufhes or Blackbirds, by which Mark ic 
differs from them. The upper Mandible is equal to the nether ; the Tongue is hard, 
horny and cloven : the Irides of the Eyes are of a hazel-colour, white on the upper part. 
It hath the nictating Membrane ; the Legs and Feet are of a yellowifli brown or flefh 
polour ; the Claws are blackifh ; the outer and inner Fore-Toe are equal to each other, 
and the outer joined to the middle Toe as far as the firft Articulation. The Legs are 
feathered down to the Knees. 

The Tips of the Feathers on the Neck and Back are yellowifli, the Feathers under 
the Tail cinereous, elfe they are black all over the Body, with a blue and purple Glofs, 
varying as it is varioufly expofed to the Light. In the Hen the Tips of the Feathers on 
the Breaft and Belly to the very Throat are white in the Cock j the Back participates 
more of purple, the Rvimp of green, but the lower Belly is more fpotted. 

All the quill Feathers are duiky ; but the Edges from the third to the tenth, and from 
the fifteenth to the laft, are more dark. The covert Feathers of the Wings glifter, and 
the Tips of the leffer covert Feathers are yellow j the Feathers covering the underlide 
of the Wings are dufky, having pale yellow Edges. 

The Tail is three Inches long, made up of twelve duiky Feathers with pale yellow 
Edges. It lays four or five Eggs lightly tindlured with a greenifli blue. 

The blind Guts as in the relt of this Kind are very fliort and fmall, nearer to the Funda- 
ment than in others. The Mufcle of the Gizzard is not very thick; the Guts are 
thirteen Inches long. It feeds oh Beetles, Worms, and other InJeSls. It hath a Gall- 
Bladder. They are gregarious Birds, living and flying together in great Flocks. They 
company alfo with Redwings and Fieldfares ; yet they do not fly away with them, but 
abide with us. all Summer,, breeding in the Holes of 'Towers, Houfes and Trees, &c. 
Starlings are not eaten in England, by reafon of the Bitternefs of their Flefli. The 
Italians, and other Foreigners are lefs dainty ; but they are not very bitter when their 
Skins are flripped olE It is a notable Bird in imitating Man's Voice^ and fpeakiag ar- 
ticulately. 



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( 39 ) 



Tloe Sky Lark. Aland a Vulgaris. ktlljUS/r^^^ 

Numb. XLI. - \7 ^ 



Numb. XLI. 

ITS Welglit Is one Ounce eleven Drams, Length from the End of the Bill to the End 
of the Tail, feven Inches and one half ; Breadth, one Foot two Inches ; the Bill from 
the Tip to the Angles of its Mouth, was three Quarters of an Inch long, the upper Man- 
dible blackifh, inclining to a Horn Colour, the lower commonly whitifli, the Tongue clo- 
ven, broad and hard, the Noflrils round. It fometimes ruffles up the Feathers of its 
Head, almoft in Fafhion of a Creft. A cinereous Ring or Crown encompaffes the hind Part 
of the Head from Eye to Eye, but more fordid, and lefs confpicuous than in the Wood- 
Lark. The Head is of a teftaceous redifli Afh Colour, the middle Parts of the Feathers- 
being black. The Back is of the fame Colour with the Head, the Chin whitifti, the- 
Throat yellow, with brown Spots; the Sides of a redifli yellow Colour. Each Wing hatb 
eighteen quill Feathers ; of thefe all betwixt the fixth and feventeenth have blunt, indent- 
ed, white Tips. The Edges of the four or five outermoft are white, thofe next the Bor- 
dy cinereous, the reft redifli. 

The Tail is three Inches long, confifling of twelve Feathers, of which the outermoft on 
each Side hath both its upper half, and alio the exterior Web of the lower white. The 
next to this hath only its outer Web white, the inner being black: the three following 
on each Side are black, the two middlemoft are fharp pointed ; of which that which lies un- 
dermoft when the Tail is fliut, hath Afti coloured Edges : that which covers it, lying up- 
permoft, towards the Tip, is cinereous, towards the Bottom blackifli. The Feet and 
Legs are dufky, the Claws black, with white Tips ; the outer Toe grows to the middle 
below, as in other fmall Birds. The Liver is divided into two Lobes, the Left much lefs 
than the Right, that there may be Room for the Gizzard, which is more flefliy and large 
in this Bird than is ufually in Birds of this Bignefs. 

The Flefh is very fweet and delicate ; in mild Winters It feeds itfelf very fit. It builds 
on the Ground, and lays four or five Eggs, and makes its Neft of dry Herbs and Strings 
or Bents of Grafs, and breeds thrice a Year, in May, y^'(v, and Anguji, rearing the young 
very foon. The young Neftlings are brought up with Sheep's Heart and Egg chopt to- 
gether, till they are about three Weeks old ; and when they begin to feed themfelves, 
give them Oatmeal Grits, Hempfced, and Bread mixt with a little boil'd Egg, or Whear, 
Oatmeal and Millet, and you muftobferve to give them Sand, mixed with a little Hay- 
Seed in the Bottom of the Cage, being what they delight in moft ; as alfo, a frefli Turf 
once or twice a Week, placing it in a Difh of Water to preferve it frefti. Their Cage 
muft be large, and without Pearches, 

The Cock is diftinguifhed from the Hen, by his long Heel, which reaches beyond his 
Knee ; and having two black Spots on his Neck, one on each Side, like unto a Ring or 
Collar ; his Breaft darker and more fpeckled with black, and a groffer Body. 

Thofe Birds you intend to keep for Singing, arebeft when taken in OBober ^v\d November^ 
and then they fing a little after Chrijlmas ; you muft chufe the ftreighteft, largeft, and 
loftieft Bird, and he that bath the moft white in his Tail, which are the ufual Marks of a 
Cock. If he is wild and buckifh, tie his Wings for two or three Weeks, till he become tame, 
and more acquainted with you, then untie his Wings, letting him hang in the fame Place 
he did before, feeding him with white Oats, Bread, and Hempfeed > and when he begins 
to fing, give him a hard Egg, Sheep's Heart:, or a little boil'd M/,;/^/^o« ovVeal fhread fmall, 
forbearing to give him any Salt Meat, or Bread that is any thing fait, which is pernicious 
to all Birds. " 7h 



loX 



( 40 ) 

The Wood Lark. Alavda Silveftris. 

fPiUM'^^^^ . ^""'- ^^"- 

'' J ^fTS Weight is one Ounce and five Drams; Length, from theTip of the Bill to the End of theTail, 

J_Oh' JL '5 '^^ Inches} Diftance between the Wings, when extended, is twelve Inches j it is leffcr and 

/ Ihorter bodied than the cotrimon Larkj the Bill is ftreight, (lender and fharp pointed, as are all 

■of the Lark Kind, above half an Inch long, fomewhat flat, of a dufky Colour; its Tongue broad 
and cloven, the hides of its Eyes Hazel- coloured, its Noftrils round, its Feet of a pale Yellow, 
inclining to Fiefh -Colour ; its Claws dusky, that of the back Toe longeft: the outmoft fore Toe 
iJlicks to the Middle below, near the Divarication. 

I'hc Bveatt and Belly areof a pale ycllowifhHair Colour, faintly fpotted with black in the middle 
Parts ofthe Feathersj the Back and Head are party-coloured of black and redifh yellow, the Middle 
of each Feather being fpotted with black ; the Neck is afh-coloured, a white Line encompafling 
the Head from Eye to Eye like a Crown, or Wreath j the Rump is of a yellowifhred, or 'tawny. 

Each Wing hath eighteen prime Feathers, the outermoft being much fhorter than the reft, the 
next five are half an Inch longer, having their Points fharp, and their out Edges white: the reli 
liave their Points blunt and indented in the Middle, with yellow Edges ; the Feathers of thcBaf- 
tard Wing are dusk, with Clay- coloured Tips, and at its Root is a white Spot; the fmall Feathers 
on the Ridge ofthe Wing are al"h-coloured ; the Tail is tv/o Inches long, confifting of twelve 
Feathers, the middle ones fomething fhorter than the reft, and ending in fharp Points, being be- 
tween a green and dusky Red or fulvous Colour j the four next on each Side had blunt Points, tipc 
with white J the outermoft in Order more dusky, inclining to black. It had no Craw; in theSto- 
inach were found Beetles, Caterpillars, Gromil-feed, &c. The Stomach was provided with ftrong 
and thick Mufcles, the blind Gut very fhort : The Gut below thefe Appendants is larger. 

Itis diftinguiflaed from the common Lark, by fitting on Trees, and flying in Companies toge- 
ther, fingingas they fly with a Note not much unlike the Blackbird ; it fingsefpecially in the Night, 
■when it is often taken for the Nightingale in Aday^ June and July. In warm Weather, and light 
Kights, it will fing almoft all Night long, but chiefly whilft the Hens are fitting. It is compa- 
rable to the Nightingale for finging, and by fome preferred before it : He will ftrive to excel him, 
if hung in the lame Room, having a great Variety of Notes. It is a tender Bird, and yet breeds 
the foonell of any in England^ the young Birds being ready to fly by the middle oi March : They 
build in Lays where the Grafs is rank and dry, under fome Turf to fhelter them from the Weather. 
The young Birds cannot be brought up from the Neft with all the Care that can be taken, they ei- 
ther having the Cramp, or firlling into a Scouring and die. There are three Seafons of taking 
Wood-Larks ; the firft is in June, July and Auguft^ then are taken the Branchers ; thefe fing pre- 
fently, but continue not long, becaufe of their moulting, and are very fiimiliar Birds when taken 
young; the next is \x\Septemhey^^\\\c\\ is the general Flight time, they then roving from one Coun- 
try to another. The young Birds having now moulted all their Feathers, you can hardly diftinguifli 
them from the old ones : Thefe Birds prove good, if they arc well kept all Winter, otherwife 
they will be loufie and quire fpoiled. They begin to fing after Spring, and continue i'\\July. The 
laft and beft Seafon, is in the Beginning of January^ and latter End of Ff ^r««rj, which is the Time 
of Pairing thcmfelves, and parting with their laft Brood. Thefe Birds are commonly the beft provid- 
ed they arc not wild and buckifli, for thofe Birds feldom prove good ; they fing in a few Days after 
they are taken, and are more perfe6i: in their Song than thofe taken at other Seafons. They are fed after 
the fame Manner as the Sky Lark, changing their Water three Times a Week, giving them a frefli 
Turf of three Icav'd Grafs two or three Days in a Week in the Spring, putting red fine fifted Gra- 
vel in the Bottom of the Cage, andfhiftingit twice a Week, otherwife it will be fubje<5t to clog 
its Feet with the Dung. Let not its Meat be too ftale, dry or mouldy ; for your Birds fo fed will 
never thrive. Feed him all the Time of his Song with fome Sheep's Heart mix'd with Egg, Bread 
and Hempl'eed ; putting into his Water two or three Slices of Liquorice, and a little Sugar-Candy, 
with a Blade or two of Saffron once a Week; this makes him longwinded,andIavifhin his Song. The 
Cock is known from the Hen by the Largenefs and Length of his Call, by the tall walking about 
the Cfige, and by doubling his Call as if going to rooft. 

I. Theii- Difeafes are the Cramp, the Remedy iskeeping them clean, taking Care iiot to hang them 
out in the Rain, and lining their Perch with Bays. 2. Giddinefs of the Head, by too much feeding 
on Hempfced, for which give them Meal-worms, or Ants and their Eggs. 3. Loufinefs and Scurf, 
which is helped by fmoaking their Feathers with Tobacco, and giving themfrefh Sand, and fct- 
ting them in the Sun to Bafk themlelves. The 




.i^^rvde^tmy. 



.yilant^a.J'i(i'€J-OiJ . 



'yUiHce^ttz ^cBoi^ . 



-jTie 7f''ovtiZa^ 




£ . dMivtUlt'n 



d/iuu^ JViUevu^ . 



aicu^/te- de- prU' . 



IficZittJ^ark 



(41) 

TTse Titlark. Alauda pratorum. 
Numb. XLIir. 

ITS Weight is five Drams and a half; Length, from the tip of the Bill to the end of 
the Tail, fix Inches; Breadth, when the Wings are extended, ten Inches and a quar- 
ter. It is fomething lefs than the comraon Lark, having a long Body and a fmall head; 
a flender fharp Bill, half an Inch long, flat and deprefled tow^ard the Head ; the tip of 
the Tongue is jagged ; the Circle about the Pupil hazel colour'd ; the Colour on the top 
of the Head, Shoulders and middle of the Back, various , of a yellowifh green and 
black, the middle parts of the Feathers being black, the Outfides or Edges of a 
yellowilh green ; the lower part of the Back or Rump is only green without any 
mixture of Black; the upper Side of the foremention'd various Colour, the finglc 
Colour being lefs confpicuous by reafon of a fmall mixture of cinereous or afh Colour. 
The under fide of the Body, the Breaft, and fides under the Wings, were of a fordid 
yellowifh white, fpotted with black, the lower Belly, Throat and under the Chin 
white without any black Spots, The quill Feathers of the Wings are dusky, their 
exterior Edges being of a yellowifli green ; the middle Feathers of the firfl Row of 
Coverts have their tips and exterior Edges whitifh, and the middle of the fecond Row 
white; the refi: of the covert Feathers of the Wing are of the fame Colour with thefca- 
pular Feathers. I believe it is peculiar to this Kind to have the four firfi: Feathers equal. 

The Tail is made up of twelve Feathers, the two outermofl on each Side are parti-co- 
lour'd of white and brown ; the outermoft Feather, the upper half of which is white, 
dividing the Feather obliquely ; the next Feather the tip only is white ; the reft of the 
Feathers are of a dark brown, and their exterior Edges of a yellowifh green as it were 
jagged or fringed. The Tail when folded up is a little forked, near three Inches long. 

The Feet are yellow ; the Claw of the Back-Toe, as in the reft of the Lark kind, 
very long and dusky. The Gizzard not fo mufculous as in other Larks, in which was 
found Beetles and Infedts like Meal Worms; the BUnd-Guts are fomething longer than 
in the common Lark^ it hath alfo a Gall or Bladder. 

Mr. Jejfop fufpefts that there is yet another different fort of Bird which may be called 
the LeJJer Field-Lark, or more commonly called the Pippit. See Plate No. 44. 

They build commonly in Bulhes near the Ground; their Neft is outwardly of Mofs, 
inwardly of fine Straw, with a httle Horfe-Hair, and lay five or fix Eggs. 

The Cock is all over more yellow than the Hen, efpecially under the Throat, on the 
Breaft, Legs and Soles of the Feet. 

They fit on Trees like the IFood-Lark, fing moft like the Canary-Bird of any Bird 
whatfoever, whifking, curring and chewing; but their J^ong is ftiort and hath no variety 
in it. This Bird comes with the Nightingale dihout the beginning of -^r//, and goes away 
about the beginning of September ; the young are to be fed, when firft taken, after the 
manner of the Nightingale : The old one (if taken) in like manner to be at firft cram'd. 

When he will feed himfelf , give him Wood-Lark's Meat. Before his going away he 
is apt to grow fat, like the Nightingale, but will eat though never fo fat : He is a hardy 
Bird, and long liv'd, if preferved with Care, and is not fubjedt to Colds or Cramps. 



M I'h' 




C 4O 

The Tippit or lejjer Lark. Alauda Minor. 

Numb. XLIV. 

IT S Weight is eleven Drams ; its Length from the end of the Bill to 
the end of the Tail is fix Inches and a half; Breadth, ten Inches. 
It is fmaller than the common Lark, weighing not half fo much ; its 
Bill is long, flender, and fliarp pointed, half an Inch and half a quarter 
long, of a yellowifh dusky Colour, fomewhat flattifh; its Head, Neck, 
Back and Wings are of a dirty Olive-green, the middle of each Feather 
having a^Shade of black; its Breaft and Belly are of a yellowifh white, 
faintly fpotted with black ; it hath fixteen prime Feathers in each Wing, 
the firfl four, or outermofl:, are pointed, and half an Inch and half 
a quarter longer than the reft , the others are blunt and indented, 
except the three laft, which are pointed as the firft, but not indented ; 
the firft and fecond covert Feathers of the Wings have a Border of a 
dirty white. 

The Tail is two Inches and a half long, made up of twelve Feathers, 
the outermoft of which is almoft half way white, its exterior Edge of a 
dirty white, the fecond Feather only pointed with white , the next 
three blackifh, their exterior Edges hath a caft of yellow, the two 
middlemoft are of a dusky Colour with light Edges. 

The Feet and Legs are of a dusky yellow; its hind Claw half an 
Inch long, after the manner of the other Larks. They come about 
the middle of Sept ember ^ and are taken in great Numbers by the Bird- 
Catchers about London, 




the 



^ 







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Vff^ffKr.,.,,!;,,,. 



!t/u J'lfr^ritOf' jma/CXar^ ■ 







Smindo dirme&ticci . 



Sarvndclliv ;' " ' . Striue ^1111011' . 



( 43 ) 

The Hofi/e Swallow. Hirundo domeftica. 



Numb. XLV. 



^J^^/^ 



ITS Length is feven Inches from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tall j the Breadth 
when the Wings are extended, twelve Inches and a half; Weight fifteen Drams and 
a half ; the Bill is fhort, black, flat and depreffed, very broad at the Head ; but fharp- 
pointed, black alfo on the infide ; but the Tongue and Roof of the Mouth yellow; the 
Aperture of the Mouth gaping very wide, for the Conveniency of catching Flies and 
Gnats asfhe flies ; the Tongue fhort, broad and cloven ; the Eyes great and furnifhed with 
nidlating Membranes ; the Irides of the Eyes hazel-colour'd j the Feet fhort and black ; 
the outermoftToe growing to the middlemoflat Bottom. 

The Head, Neck, Back and Rump are of a very lovely fhining, bur dark purplifh blue 
Colour ; as well above as underneath the Bill is a deep orange-colour Spot ; the Throat 
is of the fame Colour with the Neck ; the Breafl and Belly white with a dafh of red ; as 
are alfo the interior covert Feathers of the Wings ; the Tail forked confifling of twelve 
Feathers, the outermofl of which are an Inch longer than the next, and end in fharp Points : 
Of the interior Feathers the middlemofl are the fliorteft in Degrees, and fo in order to 
the exterior, but the Difference much lefs ; all the Feathers of the Tail, except the two 
middlemoft, are black and each adorned with a white Spot, which Spots crofs the Tail in 
a flreight Line ; the two middlemoft want the white Spot : The Wings have eighteen 
quill Feathers alike black ; but all the covert Feathers are of a deep blue like thofe of 
the Back. 

In the Stomach of an old Bird were found Beetles; in the Stomach of the young many 
fmall pellucid, unequal Stones tinftured with a fair claret Colour ; not far from the Eggs 
fmall Worms fpirally rolled up, of three Inches Length, Thefe Birds build in Chimneys 
and under the Copings of Buildings. They gather together about the latter End of Sep- 
tember, and are faid to fly into hot Countries, viz. Egypt and Mthiopia^ &c. to winter there. 
The Flefh is eaten in Italy, and is a Specifick againfl the Falling-Sicknefs. The Afhes of 
them two Drams, Powder of Rofin one Dram, and Honey of Rofes mixt and applied, 
helps the Quinfey and Inflammation of the Uvula. 

The Stone found in the Stomach of the young Swallow, taken at the Full of the 
Moon, and bound to the Arm, or hung about the Neck of young Children, is faid to cure 
the Falling-Sicknefs and Quartan Agues. They foretel Rain, when they fly about Lakes 
and Water, or near the Ground. Their Food is Flies, Gnats and other Infeds. 




2/1 



fbe 




( 44 ) 

The great Titmouje or Ox-Ky^ Fringillago feu Parus 

major. 

Numb. XLVI. 

ITS Length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail is fix In- 
ches ; Breadth, when the Wings are extended, nine Inches and a 
quarter; weight eleven Drams; its Bill is ftreight, black, half an Inch 
long, and of a moderate thicknefs ; both Mandibles of equal Length ; 
the Tongue broad, ending in four Filaments; the Feet of a lead or 
blue Colour; the Head and Chin black. From the corners of the Mouth 
on each fide, below the Eyes, a broad white Line or Spot pafTmg back- 
ward takes up the Cheeks; on the hinder part of the Head is a white 
Line which fcparates the black of the Head from the yellow of the Neck. 
The Neck, Shoulders, and middle of the Back are of a yellowifh green ; 
the Rump is blue; the Breaft, Belly and Thighs are yellow; yet the 
lower or hindermoft part of the Belly white ; a broad black line, reach- 
ing from the Throat to the Vent, divides the Breaft and Belly in twain. 
The quill Feathers of the Wings are in number eighteen ; the outermoft 
little ones are dusky, with white Tips, or Tips partly white, partly blue ; 
the outer Edges of thofe next the Body are green. Of the covert Feathers 
of the firft Row, thofe that are about the middle of the Wing, with 
their whitifh Tips, make a tranfverfe whitifh Line; the fmaller covert 
Feathers of the Wings are blue j the tail is about two Inches and a half 
long, compounded of twelve Feathers, the exterior Vanes of all which, 
except the outermoft, are blue or dark afti colour'd, the interior black, 
the outermoft have their exterior Vanes and Tips of white. Thefe Birds 
feed alfo on Caterpillars and the Eggs of thofe Infedls which infeft the 
Frutt-Trees, 




the 






H 




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Ltfm.i ', 




£ag..ai^r^7lZ)e.^ 



2hruJ . 



TTle^an^e- Tlcm^te.. 



The- ^^.r^.&^j-^^TjTrz-iitir' 



(45 ) 

The blue Titmouje or Nun. Parus cseruleus. 

Numb. XLVIL 

ITS Length is four Inches, from the point of the Bill to the end of 
the Tail; its Breadth, when the Wings are expanded, feven Inches 
and a half; weight fix Drams; its Bill fhort, thick, fharp, and of a 
dusky Colour ; the Tongue broad, ending in four Filaments 3 the Legs of 
a lead Colour ; the outermoft Toes are faftened to the middle ones ; the 
Head of an azure Colour, encompaffed with a circle of white, as it were 
a Wreath or Coronet; to the white Circle fucceeds another parti-colour'd, 
encompaffing the Throat and hinder part of the Head, above being al- 
moft of the fame Colour with the Head, towards the Throat and under 
the Throat, black ; below this Circle on the Neck is a white Spot. From the 
Bill a black Line pafTes thro' the Eyes to the hinder Part of the Head ; the 
Cheeks are white; the Back is of^ a yellowifh green; the Sides, Breafl 
and Belly yellow, fave that a whitifh Line produced as far as the Vent 
divides the Breafl in two. In the Cock Bird the Head is more blue, in 
the Hen and young ones lefs. 

The tips of the quill-Feathers next the Body are white, as alfo the 
the outer Edges of the foremofl: from the midde Part upward ; the covert 
Feathers of the Wings are blue, the inmofh of which, with their white 
Tips, make a white Line crofs the Wing. The Tail is two Inches long, 
in which j'are twelve Feathers of a blue Colour, only the Edges of the 
outermoft Feathers are a little white. The quill Feathers in each Wing are 
in number eighteen, befides the outermoft fhort one. 

Thefe Birds are very beneficial to the Trees, in deftroying the young 
Caterpillars, and Eggs of thofe Infetfls which deftroy the Fruit. I have 
obferved them tear the Webs to Pieces , and eat the Caterpillars which 
have been enclofed in them. 





N "The 



( 4^ ) 
The Beardmanica or Bearded-Titmouje. 

Numb. XLVIII. 

IT S Length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail is fix In- 
ches and a half ; Breadth, when the Wings are extended, ten Inches 
and a half; weight nine Drams and a half The Bill is fliort, thick 
and of a yellowilh Colour (in the Hen dusky.) The Head is of a dark 
cinereous Colour; from the Bill to the back Part of the Eyes, on each 
Side, a Tuft of black Feathers hangs down, ending in a point, repre- 
fenting a picked Beard, from which Mark it has the Name of Beard- 
manica. The Back, upper part of the Wings, and lower part of the 
Belly and Tail are brown; under the Chin white; the Breaft, Belly 
and Thighs of a pale yellowifh white, with a Tindiure of brown ; the 
Legs and Feet black. This Bird is very fingular in his Care and Love 
which he ihews to the Hen, when at Rooft he covers her all Night with 
his Wing. 

In each Wing are eighteen prime Feathers, the five or fix outermoft 
are white, and have the one third of the Length from the Point of a 
light brown Colour ; all the reft have their exterior Webs black, and 
their interior Webs light brown. It hath two black Spots on the upper 
Coverts of the Wings on each fide. 

The Tail is about two Inches and three quarters long, compounded of 
twelve Feathers of the fame Colour with the Back. 

The Hen is fomething fmaller than the Cock, and of a more beauti- 
ful yellowilh brown ; the Wing and Legs of the fame Colour with thofe 
of the Cock. The Hen is without the Beard, and more pale on the 
Breaft. 

Thefe two Birds I bought of Mr. Bland on Tower-Htll^ who told me 
he had them from "Jutland, I have been fince inform'd by Sir Robert Abdy 
that they are found in the Salt'MarJhes in EJfex, and by others that 
they are likewife in the Fens in Lmcolnjlnre. 



The 




:Fji^ ^?/lnn ^:^e^'n . 'JT'h^ JB&aTd TTIanlui /rzrm. JuleJand, 



¥' 



49 




miT/a.-///a i7//m . 



'HeJ-a-hvnr/. •//r . 



"'^^-^^ -iPaSFlPaa^ill'. 



(47) 



The JVater-Wagtail Motacilla Alba. ^^uao^j^ 

Numb.XLIX. ^ ^ 

ITS Length, from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail, feven 
Inches and three quarters ; Breadth, when the Wings are extended, 
eleven Inches; weight fix Drams. The Bill is ftreight, flender, fharp 
pointed, and black, not an Inch long ; the Tongue cloven, the Mouth 
black within. The hides of the Eyes hazel coloured : The Feet, Toes 
and Claws long, fharp pointed and blackifh ; the Back-Claw very long 
as in Larks. A white Spot from the Bill encompaffes the Eyes and {ides 
of the Throat, the top of the Head, upper and lower Side of the Neck, 
as far as the Breaft and Back, are black: The Breaft and Belly white. 

The Wings, when fpread, are of a femicircular Figure ; the quill Feathers 
of each Wing are eighteen in number, of which the three outermoft end 
in fharp Points ; the tips of the middle ones are blunt and indented ; the 
inmofl are adorned with white Lines ; the covert Feathers of the firfl 
Row are black, having their Tips and Edges white : Thofe of the fecond 
Row have only white Tips. 

Its Tail is about three Inches and a half long, which it almoflcon- 
tinually wags up and down, from whence it took its Name. The Tail 
hath twelve Feathers, of which the two middlemoft are longer than the 
reft, and fharp pointed; the others all of equal Length; the outermoft are 
almoft wholly white, the reft black. Thefe Birds differ in Colour very 
much, fome being more cinereous and fome blacker. 

It frequents Pools and watry places ,• its Food is Files and Water Infe^Sy 
Worms and fmall Beetles. 

It is faid the Qickow-Chkken is hatched and brought up by this Bird. 
See Albertus in the Chapter of the Cuckow, 






The 




J 



( 48 ) 

The Redftart. Ruticilla. 



Numb. L 



IT feeds on Beetles and other Infedls, and comes to us in the Summer 
Seafon ; from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail is five Inches ; 
its Breadth, when the Wings are extended, nine Inches ; Weight eight Drams. 

The Brcaft, Rump and Sides under the Wings are red ; the lower Belly- 
white ; the Head, Neck and Back of a lead Colour; the Forehead marked 
with a white Spot, feparated from the Eyes and Bill by a black Line; the 
Throat and Cheeks under the Eyes are black, with a Mixture of gray at 
the ends of the Feathers. In the Female the Back is of a dufky afh Colour ; 
the Throat of a paler cinereous ; the Breaft red ; the Belly white. 

The quill Feathers in each Wing are eighteen as in other fmall Birds, 
all being dufky; the upper covert Feathers black; the nether red. The 
Tail is made up of twelve Feathers, of which the five outermoft on each 
Side are red; the two middlemofl dufky; two Inches and a half long. 
. The Bill is black ; the Legs alfo in the Cock are black; in the Hen both 
Bill and Legs are paler ; the loweft Bone of the outer Toe is joined to that 
of the middle Toe. The Tongue is cloven ; the Mouth within yellow ; 
the hides of the Eyes of a hazel Colour ; the Eyes are furnifhed with nic- 
tating Membranes. 

This is a very dogged and fullen temper'd Bird ; for if taken old, fhe 
will fometimes for four or five Days not look at her Meat, and when taught 
to feed herfelf continues a whole Month without finging ; £he is alfo the 
fhiefl of all Birds, for if fhe perceive you to mind her when flie is building 
fhe will forfake what fhe hath begun, and if you touch an Egg fhe never 
comes to her Neft again ; and if you touch her young ones, fhe will ei- 
ther ftarve them, or throw them out of the Neft and break their Necks, as 
has been experienced more than once ; the young are to be taken at ten 
Days old, and to be fed and ordered as Nightingales ^ keeping them warm 
in Winter, and they will fing in the Night as well as in the Day, and will 
learn to whiftle and imitate other Birds ; when taken young they become 
gentle and very tame. 



The 



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r-r,-/^ ^ Hc^^f^i^n^-/, 



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U£dJ'ezif^ 




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5^ 




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I^u /'i^rtf/a 






ne Roh-m-red-breafi. Rubeculus. //M^^^% 

Numb. LI. y 



IT S Length from the tip of the Bill to the End of the Tail is fix Inches ; its Breadth 
when the Wings are expanded, nine Inches ; the Breafl: is a deep orange Colour, 
which Colour compafTes alfo the Eyes and upper part of the Bill : The Belly is white ; 
the Head, Neck, Back and Tail are of a dirty green or yellow as in 'Thru/hes, or rather 
cinereous with a Tindure of green 5 a Line of pale blue divides between the red Colour 
and the cinereous on the Head and Neck ; under the Wings i& fcen fomething of an. 
orange tawny. 

The exterior Borders of the Wings are almoft of the fame Colour with the Back ; the 
interior are fomething yellowj the Tail is two Inches and a half long, and made up of 
twelve Feathers, 

The Bill is llender, of a duiky Colour, and more than half an Inch long; the Tongue- 
cloven and jagged j the Irides of the Eyes are of a hazel Colour ; the Legs, Feet and Clawsi 
of a dulky or blackifh ; the outer fore Toe joined to the middlemoft at Bottom as in the 
reft of this Kind. In Winter-time to feek Food it enters into Houfes with much 
Confidence, being a very bold Bird, fociable and familiar with Man. In the Summer- 
time when there is Plenty of Food in the Woods, and it is not pinched with cold, it 
withdraws itfelf with its Brood info the moft defert Places ; it is a folitary Bird and feeds 
finglyi it builds its Neft among the thickeft Thorns and Shrubs, covering it with oaken 
Leaves, and leaving a Paflage to it on one Side only, like a Porch arched over; and when 
it goes out to feek its Food it flops it up with Leaves, and fometimes in Holes of Trees 
with Mofs, dead Grafs and Bits of Sticks. The Cock is diftinguifhed from the Hen by the 
Colour of his Legs which are blacker, and by certain Hairs or Beards which grow on each 
Side his Bill ; its Food is Worms and Infeds, and when kept in a Cage it is fed as the 
Nightingale, being by fome efteemed little inferior to it in finging. 

They build in Aprils May and June, feldom having above five young ones and not un- 
der four : You may take them at ten Days old ; (if you let them lie too long they will be 
fuUen) keep them warm, giving them not too much Food at a Time, which will caufe 
them to throw it up again j when they are ftrong, cage them, and keep them in all refpeds 
like the Nightingale ; they arc fubjeft to Cramp and Dizzinefs, for the Cure of the 
fofl: give them a Meal-worm or Spider, and for the latter fix or feven Earwigs- a Week. 




rbe 




( yo ) 

The Stmechatter, Rubetra/' 

Numb. LII. 

IT S Length from the tip of the Bill to the eixi of the Tail is five In- 
ches ; Breadth, when the Wings are expanded, eight Inches and a 
half; Weight eight Drams. The upper Chap is a little longer than the 
nether, and a little crooked ; the Tongue cloven ; the Irides of the Eyes 
hazel coloured: The Legs, Feet and Claws black; the outer Toe grows' 
to the middle one below, as in the other fmall Birds. The Head is 
great, in the Cock almoft wholly black, as is alfo the Throat under the 
Bill; in the Hen it is parti-colour'd of black and dirty red: The upper 
part of the Neck is black, on each Side it is mark'd with a white Spot, fo 
that the Bird feems to have a Ring of white about its Neck: The middle 
of the Back is black, only the outermoft Edges of the Feathers arefulvous; 
above the Rump is a white Spot; the Breaft is of yellowifh red or pale 
orange Colour, the Belly of the fame Colour but paler. 

In the Female the Feathers of the Head, Neck and Back are red in- 
clining to green, having their middle parts black; the Rump is red; the 
Chin of a pale alh Colour: It hath a whitifh Spot on each fide the Neck; 
the Breaft is of a deeper, but the Belly of Uke Colour with the Cocks. 

The prime Feathers of the Wings are in number eighteen, all dusky, 
excepting the two next the Body which have a white Spot at bottom; 
the Edges of all are red ; all the covert Feathers of the Wings have alfo 
red Edges : The Wings in both Sexes are adorned with a white Spot in 
the Feathers next the Back. 

The Tail is near two Inches long, and confifts of twelve Feathers not 
forked and black; the'tip and exteriorWeboftheoutermoftFeather on each 
fide are white. It hath a Gall-Bladder ; a Stomach not very flefhy, in which 
when diileded was found Beetles and other Infects ; its blind Guts were 
iliort, tumid and round. 

This Bird is found for the mofl part on Heaths, and is very querulous. 



The 




lu-z/7//;;, n./, 



,S5 




; 7C. ytX/n'/L del. A.2i£^?u/uj /^rTA^zitzu , t/i£. ire^tt^ ^^r^cn, . 



"& .He^uAu , tAe^ /Mnz'm/rTv'^-'rerv . 




( yl ) 

the Golden Wren. Regulus Criflatus. And common Wren. Pafier trog-. 

lodites. MllJ. 

Numb. LIII. A 0,2.0 . 

THIS is the leaft of all Birds found with us in England ; its Length from the Tip of the Bill 
to the End of the Tail, is three Inches and half a Quarter, Breadth when the Wings are ex- 
tended, fix Inches, Weight three Drams. The Top ot the Head is adorned with a molt beauti- 
ful bright Spot or Creft of a golden yellow, intermixt with a Saffron Colour. Hence it got thofe 
ambitious Titles of Regulus and Tyrannus^ little King or Tyrant; it can when it lifts, by cor- 
rugating its Forehead, and drawing the Sides of the Spot together, wholly conceal its Creft, and 
render it invifible. It is of an oblong Figure, and extended dire£tly thro' the Middle of the 
Head from the Bill towards the Neck. The Edges of it on both Sides are yellow, and the whole 
is environed with a black Line; The Sides of the Neck are of a lovely fhining yellowifti green 
Colour } the Eyes are encompaffed with white j the Neck, and all the Back, from a dark green 
incline to yellow j the Breaftis of a fordid white, the Wings are concave, not much unlike the 
Chaffinch's Wingsj the quill Feathers are eighteen, all of a dufky Colour, only their exterior 
Edges yellowifh, and their interior Edges whitilhj the Tips alfo of the three next the Body are 
white. The outermoft quill Feathers are very fhort and little j the covert Feathers of the firft 
have white Tips, all together making a white Line crofs the Wing. 

The Tail is made up of twelve Feathers fliarp pointed, an Inch and a half long, not forcipate, 
of a dusky Colour, only the exterior Borders of the Feathers are of a yellowifh gieen. 

The Bill is flender, ftreight, black, a quarter and half a quarter of an Inch long; the Feet and 
Clav7s yellowifh; the Tongue long, fharp, and cloven ; the Irides of the Eyes of a Hazel Colour. 

They lay fix oi- feven Eggs no bigger than large Peas; their Food is fmall Infefts. My Lord 
Trevor found one in his Garden, which built its Ncftin a Yew Tree near theHoufe. 

The Length of a common Wren, is four Inches and half, breadth fix Inches and a half. Weight 
three Drams and a half. The Head, Neck and Back are of a dark fpadiceous Colour, efpeciajly 
the Rump and Tail; the Back, Wings and Tail are varied with crofs black Lines; theThroac 
is of a pale yellow, the Middle of the Breaft whiter : the lower Belly is of a dufky red j the Tips 
of the fecpnd Row of Wing Feathers are marked with three or four Spots of a yellowifh Co- 
lour, as is alfo the Covert Feathers of the Tail. The number of quill Feathers are eighteen j the 
Tail, which for the moft Part it holds ere£b, is made up of twelve Feathers. 

The Bill is half an Inch long, flender, yellowifh beneath, dufky above; the Mouth within fide 
yellow, Irides of the Eyes Hazel coloured; the outer Toes are faftned to the middle one as far 
as the firft Joint j it creeps about Hedges and Holes j it makes but fhorc Flights, and if driven 
from the Hedges, may be eafily tired and run down. 

It builds its Neft foraetimes by the Walls of Houfes, in the Back-fides of Stables, or other 
Out-houfes covered with Straw, but more commonly in Woods and Hedges, without of Mofs, 
within of Hairs and Feathers. This Neft is of the Figure of an Egg e red upon one end, and hath 
in the Middle of the Side a Door or Aperture by- which it goes in and our. Being kept tame, 
it fings very fweetly, and with a higher and louder Voice than one would think for its Strength 
and Bignefs, and that efpecially in the Month of May, for then it breeds ; It lays nine or ten 
Eggs, and fometimes more. 

It is faid to be a fpccifick Remedy for the Stone in the Kidneys or Bladder being faked and 
eaten rav/j or being burnt and the Afhes of one Bird taken in White Wine. 



The 




( jO 

The Ktng Fifljer, Alcyon. 
Numb. LIV. 

IT weighed twenty Drams j its Length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail 
is feven Inches ; Breadth, when the Wings are extended, eleven Inches and a quarter. 
The Bill is three Inches long, thick, ftrong, freight and fharp pointed ; the Point and 
tipper Chap is black; the Angle of the lower Chap of a redifli yellow; the Tongue 
is {horr, broad and (harp pointed ; the Mouth within of a faffron Colour ; the Noflrils 
oblong; the Chin is white, with a mixture of redifh brown Feathers ; the Belly of the fame 
Colour but darker, as is alfo the under part of the Tail and Wings. From the Neck thro* 
the middle of the Back, almoft to the end of the Tail, it is of a bright pale blewifh green, 
very fplendid and delightful to the Eyes of the Beholders. Between the Noftrils and Eyes is 
a redifh brown Spot, which is continued beyond the Eyes and terminates in a whiti(h Co- 
lour; the Crown of the Head is of an obfcure dark green, with crofs difcontinued Lines 
of a blewifh green. 

In each Wing are twenty three quill Feathers, of which the third is the longeftj 
both the quill Feathers, and thofe next to them, have their exterior Webs blewifh green j 
their interior dufky ; the lefTer Row of Wing Feathers, all excepting thofe covering the 
bafe of the Wing, have blewifh Tips ; the long Feathers fpringing from the Shoulders 
and covering the Back are of a blewifh green; the Tail is about an Inch and a half 
long made up of twelve Feathers, of a dark blue very obfcure towards the end. 

The Legs and Feet are very fhort and little, of a red Colour ; the Claws black 5 the 
Strudlure of the Feet in this Bird is fingular and different from all others, for the three 
lower Joints of the outermofl Tee are joined to the middlemoft; of the inmoft only one: 
This inner Toe is the leafl, and fhorter by half than the middlemofl ; the outer almofl 
equal to the middlemofl:; the back Toe is fomewhat bigger than the inner fore Toe, 
The third or lowefl Bone of the Leg is greater than is ufual in other Birds 1 The Bones 
of the Tongue are leffer and fhorter than is ufual in Birds of this Bignefs. 

The Stomach is great and lax, as in carnivorous Birds ; in one of them diflefted was 
found Bones and Scales of Fifhes. The Guts are more flender towards the Vent. Gefner 
afhrm^s that the Fat of this Bird is red, which is alfo mention'd by Willoughby to be true. 
They commonly make their Neft in a Hole in the Bank of a River about half a. Yard 
deep, in which they have commonly five young ones. 

It is a vulgar Opinion that this Bird being hung by an untwifled Silk, or Horfe-Hair^ 
by the Bill in any Room, will turn its Breaft to that quarter of the Heavens whence the 
Wind blows. 

Dr. Charkton in his Ono/naJIkon makes mention of a King Fifher brought out of India 
which fcarce exceeds a Wren in Bignefs : I have feen one brought from Smyrna by the 
ingenious Dr. Sherwood three times as big as ours, and of different Colours : Another 
fomething bigger than that, which was a native of Carolina, of a darkifh Colour, having 
a large Creft of the fame Colour; the Belly, BreafI: and Thighs of a pale red; the Bill 
and Legs darkaCb; the Throat and part of tlie Neck white l This laft was collededby 
Mr. Catesby^ 



fbi 



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(Si) 
The Wheat Ear. Oenanthe; 

Numb. LV. 

ITS Weight is twenty one Drams ; its Length from the End of the Bill to 
the End of the Tail, fix Inches ; Breadth when extended, twelve Inches. 
The Colour of the Head and Back is cinereous, with a certain Mixture of 
red, like to that which is feen in the Back of the Hawfinch. The Rump 
in moft of them is white, whence alfo it takes the Name of White Tail ; in 
fome it is of the fame Colour with the Back, or mere red. The whole 
Belly is white, lightly daflied with red. The Bread and Throat have 
a deeper Tindlure of red. The Belly of the Cock is fometimes yel- 
lowish ; above the Eyes is a white Line continued to the hinder Part of 
the Head, below the Eyes a black Stroke is extended from the Corners 
of the Mouth to the Ears. This black Line is not in the Females. 

Both the quill Feathers and covert Feathers of the Wings are black, except 
the extream Edges, which are white tindtured with a fordid red. The Tail 
is two Inches and a quarter long, made up of twelve Feathers, of which the 
two middlemoft have their upper half white, the reft their lower, the Or 
ther half being black ; the Tips and Edges of them all are white. In the 
Hen the white takes up but a quarter of the Feathers. 

The Bill is flender, ftraight, black more than half an Inch long ; the 
Mouth is black within, the Tongue black and cloven ; the Aperture of 
the Mouth great, the hides of the Eyes Hazel coloured ; the back 
Toe is armed with a great Claw, the Stomach is not very mufculous, 
out of which diffedied was taken Beetles and other Infects. They breed in 
forfaken Coney Burrows ; and they catch them in Sujfex^ by digging long 
Turfs of Earth, and laying them acrofs the Holes out of which they 
are digged, hanging Snares of Horfe Hair at the middle of the Entrance. 
The Birds being very timorous at the Appearance of a Hawk, or dark Cloud 
intercepting the Sun Beams, they run and hide themfelves in the Holes- 
of the Turfs, and are caught by the Neck in the Snares. 



Tht 




'i/iMi^qri-'- 



( H) 

The common Grasheak. Coccothrauftes vulgaris. 



Numb. LVL 



n/jj If' '^^ Length Is feven Inches from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail ; Breadth 

^7 ' \ when the Wings are expanded, twelve Inches and a half ; Weight one Ounce and thir- 

teen Drams : its Head is too large in Proportion to its Body ; its Bill is three quarters of 
an Inch long; the Circumference at the Bafc two Inches and a quarter, very hard, broad, 
and ending in a fharp Point of the Figure of a Cone, having a large Cavity within of a. 
whitilh flefh Colour and the tip of a blackiflij the Eyes are grey or afh-coloured 
as in the Jack-daws -, the Tongue feems as it were cut off as in the Chaffinch ; the Feet 
are of a pale flefli Colour; the Claws great, efpecially thofe of the middle and back Toes; 
the middle Toe is the longeft; the outer fore Toe and back Toe are equal to each other. 

At the Bafe of the Bill grow orange-coloured Feathers > between the Bill and the Eyes 
black ; the lower Chap in the Males is compaiTed with a Border of black Feathers ; the 
Head of a yeliowHh red, or rufty Colour; the Neck cinereous; the Back red, the middle 
Part of the Feathers being whitifh; the Rump from yellow inclines to cinereous; the Sides 
and Breaft, but efpecially the Sides, are of a mixt Colour of red and cinereous ; under the 
Tail and in the middle of the Belly the Plumage is whiter. 

The quill Feathers in each Wing are eighteen in Number, of which the ten foremoft 
for half Way from the Shaft inward are white, the white Part from the firft inward being 
dilated ; of the fubfequent one half is white but not fo far as the Shaft i the three inmoft 
or thofe next the Body are red; the Tips of all from the fecond to the tenth £hine with a 
changeable Colour of purple and blue, like the Necks of Pigeons ; from the tenth to 
the exterior Borders of the fixth and feventh and the fucceeding grey, or elfe dufky ; the 
Tail is but fhort of about two Inches long, compofed of twelve Feathers, fpotted on the- 
Top of their interior Vanes with white, on their exterior in the middle Feathers with red,,. 
and in the outer with black. 

It is common in Germany and Italy; in the Summer it lives in the Mountains and- 
Woods, and in the Winter it frequents the Valleys and plains; it fcldom comes over to us. 
in Englaitd but in hard Winters ; it breaks the Stones of Cherries and Olives with Expedi-^ 
tion, the Kernels of which it is very greedy ; when diffedted in the Month of December, 
there are Stones of Holly-berries found in the Stomach ; it likewife feeds on the Kernels 
of the Hawthorn-tree, the Stones of which it cracks with Eafe, from which fome call 
it the Hawfifich. 




The 



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LifCCiTt/irm^dt^ . 



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{^<:ot/i-rau:fied . 



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S/if. ■ /'Mm d£^m. ■ ' -Zu/iUma 7±ry^irud. ! "^^"T^^S/^ ^£i/z?yz7zl T'ir^-mta. TZifi'i.tinf-a/^ 



iss) 

The Red Grosheak, or Virginia Nightingale. Cocco« 

thrauftus Indica Criftata. 

Numb. LVII. 



IT is fomething bigger than the Sky Lark ; its Bill is like that of the 
common Grosbeak^ of a pale red Colour, the Bafis of it encompafied 
with a Border of black Feathers reaching to the Eyes. It hath a large: 
Head and high Creft, ending in a pyramidal Form, of a bright Scarlet 
Colour, as is alfo the whole Bird except the Back, fome Parts of the 
Wings and the Tail, which is of a more dirty or brownifli red. Thefe 
Birds are Natives oi Vtrgmia^ New-Englandj and other Parts of North- 
Amerka. Its Strength with its Bill is furprizing, it being able to crack. 
the Stones of Olives, Almonds, and Indian Maiz, very expeditiouflys, 
the Kernels of which it is very fond of. It feeds alfo upon Hemp- 
feed, Bread, &c. They alfo deftroy the Buds of feveral Fruit Trees,, 
like the Bulfinch. It hath an agreeable melodious Song, with fome. 
Notes like the Nightingale, from which fome call it the Vtrgtma Night- 
ingale, and in Virgima^ See. they call it the Red-Bird, but more pro- 
perly the Red Grosbeak. The Hen is not fo beautiful as the Cock, be- 
ing more brown, with a Tincture of red. Thefe ling when in Cages. 
as well as the Cock, and are brought with them iato England,. 





TBs- 



i» 



'liujA^i The Green Finch. Chloris. 



^f■ 



Numb. LVm. 

ITS Welglit is thirteen Drams ; the Length from the Point of the Bill 
to the End of the Tail, is fix Inches and a half; Breadth, when the 
Wings are extended, ten Inches and a half Its Bill is like that of the 
Grosbeak^ but lefs, and half an Inch in Length, iharp pointed, and not 
crooked ; the upper Mandible dusky, the nether whitifh ; the Tongue 
is fharp, and as it were cut off, ending in Filaments ; the Eyes are fur- 
niflied with nidating Membranes ; the Noftrils round, fituatc in the 
upper Part of the Bill next to the Head; the Feet of a Flefh Colour; 
the Claws dusky ; and the outer Toe at Bottom fticks faft to the middle 
one : The Head and Back are green, the Edges of the Feathers grey ; 
the middle of the Back hath fomething of a Chefnut Colour intermingled : 
The Rump is of a deep yellow ; the Belly white, the Breaft of a yellowifh 
green, and the Throat of the fam.e Colour with the Neck: The Fea- 
thers contiguous to the Bill are of a deep yellowiih green. The Bor- 
ders of the outermoft quill Feathers of the Wing are yellow, of the 
middlemoft green, and of the innermoft grey ; the inner Feathers of the 
fecond Row are grey, the outer green : All the reft of the covert Fea- 
thers are green. The Feathers along the Ridge of the Wing are of a 
lovely yellow, as is alfo the Coverts of the under Sides of the Wings. 
The Tail is two Inches and a quarter long, made up of twelve Feathers, 
of which the two middlemoft are all over black ; thofe next have their 
outer Edges yellow, and the remaining four on each Side from the middle 
outwardly are black, but all their inner Webs from Top to Bottom yel- 
low. The Liver is divided into two Lobes, and hath a Gall Bladder an- 
nexed. The Bird when dilleAed had a large Craw, and a mufculous Sto- 
mach filled with Seeds of Plants. They build in Hedges; the outer- 
moft Part of its Neft is made of Hay, Grafs, or Stubble, the middle of 
Mofs ; the innermoft, on which the Eggs lie, of Feathers, Wool or Hair. 
It lays five or fix Eggs of a pale green Colour fprinkled with fanguine 
Spots, efpecially at the blunt end. The Colours of the Hen are more 
languid, and not fo bright and lively ; on the Breaft and Back it hath ob- 
long dusky Spots. 

The 



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Ij7- 



The Bulfinch. Rubkilla, /fJ^ujA/j^ 

Numb. LIX, and LX, 

ITS Weight is thirteen Drams ; Length from the End of the Bill to the End of its; 
Tail fix Inches ; Breadth when the Wings are extended ten Inches ; it hath a black, 
fhort, ftrong Bill, like that of the Grosbeak, but lefs, and in the old Birds fomething 
crooked; the Tongue is {hortas if cut off; its Eyes are Hazel coloured ; its Legs dufky,; 
and its Claws black, the lower Joint of the outermoft Toe flicking faft to the middle 
Toe. The Head is larger to the Proportion of the Body, than in other fmall Birds, 
and the Male hath his Breafl, Throat and Jaws adorned with a lovely Scarlet or Crim- 
fon Colour ; the Feathers on the Crown of the Head, above the Eyes, and thofe which 
compafs the Bill are black ; the Rump and Belly white ; the Neck, Back and Shoulders 
of a blewifh grey, with a certain Tindlure of red. The quill Feathers of the Wings are 
in Number eighteen, the laft of which on the outer half from the Shaft is red, the inner- 
moft black and gloffy 5 the interior of the reft are black with a Glofs of blue, and the 
exterior a dufky black. Of the firft or outermoft five, the exterior Edges in the upper 
half of the Feathers are whitifh ; the Tips of the lower covert Feathers are cinereous, 
in the interior more, and in the exterior lefs ; the next to thefe are of the fame Colour 
with the Back; the Tail is two Inches long, black and fhining, made up of twelve 
Feathers. 

The Cock is of equal Bignefs to the Hen, but hath a flatter Crown, and cxcells her 
In the Beauty of his Colours. They are very docile Birds, the Hen learning after the. 
Pipe or Whiftie, as well as the Cock, having no Song of their own but what is taught 
them, in which they excell moft Birds. They are very deftrudlive to the Buds of the 
Apple Tree, Pear Tree, Peach Tree, and other Garden Trees, efpecially Apricots and 
Plumbs, of which they only take the blowing Buds, which they delight to feed on j 
they build on Heaths, but their Nefts are difficult to be found. You may bring the young 
Birds up after the Manner of the Goldfinch-, giving them white Bread ai;d Milk. 
They are fubjed to the Giddinefs of the Head, for the Cure of which you mufl 
give them four or five Earwigs a Week. The Birds are commonly fed with Hemp- 
feed, and Rape and Canary, in which laft they delight moft. 



Q_ 1h 




( JS) 



/,/, The Croft-Bill. Loxia. 

Numb. LXL 

IT S Length from the Tip of the Bill to the End of the Tail is fix Inches and 
three Quarters ; it weighs one Ounce and a half; its Bill is thick, hard, ftrong^ 
black, and contrary to the Manner of all other Birds, crooked both ways, the Man- 
dibles croffing one another : The lower turns upwards, and the upper bends down- 
wards, but not in all Birds alike ; for in fome Birds the upper Chap hangs down on the 
Right Side, the nether rifes up on the left, and in others contrariwife ; the Noftrils 
are round; the Ears great and wide; the Irides of the Eye yellow, and fometimes in- 
clining to a Hazel Colour ; the Feet are of a dusky Flefh Colour, and the Claws black : The 
lowelt Joint of the outermoft Toe flicks to that of the middlemoft. 

The middle Part of the Back, and lower Part of the Belly, are brown, intermixed 
with other Colours ; the Chin and Breaft are ycUowifh, and the Head and Sides of 
the Neck are redifh intermixed with brown and other Colours. Thefe Birds vary in 
their Colours ; for in fome the Top of the Head and middle of the Back the Fea- 
thers are black, and the Edges green ; in the Head there is fomething of cinereous 
mixed with other Colours ; the Rump green, and the Chin afh coloured ; the Breaft 
green, and the Belly white ; only under the Tail the middle Parts of the Feathers are 
black or dufky. Some fay they change their Colour three Times a Year. The Num- 
ber of quill Feathers are eighteen, of a dark brown, only the outer Edges of the fore- 
moft are green; the Tail is made up of twelve Feathers, two Inches and a Quarter 
Jong, dark brown, with green Edges, The Guts have many fpiral Convolutions, and 
the blind Guts are very fhort. 

It is a moft voracious Bird ; it is much delighted, and feeds very fat with Hempfeed j. 
5t alfo loves Pine and Fir Kernels, and in the Months of January and February builds 
its Neft in thofe Trees. They fay, that with one Stroke of its Bill it will divide an 
.Apple in Halves, that it may feed on the Kernels, by that means doing a great deal 
of Mifchief in Orchards. 

In fome Parts of Germany, Bavaria, Suevia and Noricum, they are found in great 
Numbers all the Year. Sometimes they come over to us, and in the Weftern Parts 
of England, efpecially in Worcejlerjhire, make bad Work, fpoiling a great deal of Fruit 
in our Orchards. 

Aldro-vandus faith they fing in the Winter, and are filent in the Summer when other 
Birds fing, having a melodious Voice. 



The 



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I 



(S9) 
The HoufeSparrow^ Paffer domefticus; 2/^ 

Numb. LXII. 

ITS Weight is fixteen Drams; Length from the Bill to the End of the Tail fix Inches'- 
and a half ; the Breadth when extended is nine Inches and a half; the Bill is thick, 
theCock black at the Corners of the Mouth, and between the Eyes yellowifli ; in the Hen 
dusky, fcarce half an Inch long ; the Eyes hazel coloured, the Legs and Feet of a duiky 
Fiefli Colour, the Claws black; the Head is ofadufky blue, or afh Colour, and the- 
Chin black ; above the Eyes are two fmall white Spots, and from the Eyes a broad Line 
of a Bay Colour. The Feathers growing about the Ears are afh coloured, the Throat 
(below the black Spot) of a whitifh afh Colour ; under the Ears on each Side is a long 
■white Spot. The lower Breaft and Belly are white, and the Feathers dividing between the 
Back and Neck, on the outfide Shaft are red, on the infide black, but toward their 
Bottoms fomething of a white terminates the red. The reft of the Back and Rump are 
of a Mixture of dufky green and dark a£h Colour. 

The Hen Bird wants the black Spot under the Throat, as alfo the white Spots on the 
Neck and above the Eyes; its Head and Neck are of the fame Colour with the Rump j . 
the nether fide of the Body is of a duiky white, and inftead of the white Line crofs. thc- 
Wir.gs, it hath black Feathers with paleredifh Tips, the Colours in general of the Hen. 
not being fo fair and lively as thofe of the Cock. 

Each Wing hath eighteen quill Feathers, duiky, with red! (h Edges, and from the Baf-- 
tard Wing a broad white Line is extended to the next Joint ; above this Line the Covert 
Feathers of the Wings are of a rediih brown ; beneath they have their middle Parts 
black, and their exterior Edges red. The Tail hath twelve Feathers, and is two Inches 
and a quarter long, the middlemoft being fomething fhorter than the reft ; all of a duiky 
black Colour, with redifh Edges. The Guts are nine Inches long, the blind Guts very, 
ihort; its Stomach mufculous, it feeding upon Wheat, Oats and other Grain; its Tefticles 
are large, as is alfo the Womb of the Female, it being a falacious Bird, and for that Rea- 
fon is reported to be iliort lived. 

This Kind of Bird doth fometimes vary in Colour: Aldrovandus makes mention of a : 
white £^parrow and a yellow Sparrow ; I had one of the white kind to draw from Mr. 
Nathaniel Gldham ; likewife the Copper coloured Sparrow, at North Bearly in TorkJJoire, in 
the FolTeilion of the curious Dr. Richardjbn. Their Phyfical Ufe is faid to provoke Ve= 
nery. 




rti 



(60 ) 



^Pi&Lcj/z-Oj ne Chaffinch Fringilla. 

^j3^ Numb. LXm. 

ITS Weight is fourteen Drams ; Length from the End of the Bill to the End of the 
Tail, is fix Inches, Breadth between the Wings when extended is ten Inches j its Bill 
is Iharp, ftrong, white underneath, above and towards the Tip dusky, the lower Chap 
equal in Length to the upper, the Tongue cloven and rough, the Irides of the Eyes Ha- 
zel coloured, and the Ears great. 

The Head in the Cock is blue, but the Feathers contiguous to the Noftrils black j the 
Back is redifh, with a Mixture of afli Colour or green, the Breaft red, and the Belly un- 
der the Tail white. 

The Colours of the Hen are not fo bright and lively ; its Rump is green, the Back 
not fo red, and the Belly from red, inclines to a dirty kind of green ; the Breaft is alfo 
of a duller Colour. 

The quill Feathers in each Wing are in Number eighteen, and all but the three firft 
or outermoft have their Bottoms and interior Webs white, their exterior Edges yellow- 
i{h, or rather green. In the Cock the fmall Feathers invefting the Ridge or Bafis of the 
Wing are blue, above in each Wing is a remarkable white Spot ; then after an Interftic^ 
of black, ihcceeds a long white Fillet, beginning from the fourth Quill, and after the 
tenth, continued thro' the Tops of the covert Feathers : That Part of this Fillet which 
paffes through the Tips of the Coverts is tinftured with yellow. 

The Tail is two Inches and a half long, and made up oftwelveFeathers, of which the 
outermoft on each Side have their Bottoms,and alfo their Tops on the outfide the ftiaft black, 
their middle Part white, and the next to thefe lefs white, wz. only near the Top, and 
on the outfide the ftiaft ; the three fubfequent on both Sides are black, and the two 
middlemoft cinereous with greenifli Edges. 

The Liver is divided into two Lobes, the right being the biggeft, the Stomach not very 
flefliy j and the outermoft Toe in each Foot, as in other fmall Birds, grows to the middle- 
moft at Bottom. 

This Bird varies in its Colours; for Gejher affirms, that himfelf had feen a Chaffi?icb 
all over white, and Aldrovandiis defcribes one whofe whole Body from white declined to 
yellow, and another that was partly yellowifti, and partly black. They build in the 
Side of a Tree, and make their Neft of green Mofs, fmall Sticks, and Horfe Hair, lays 
lix or feven Eggs, and breeds two or three Times a Year 3 is a hardy Bird, feeding on 
any kind of Seeds, and foretelling wet Weather. 



The 




I 



bZA 




/^//, 



fc^' 




i:ilrs. . aZZ-znlfe/Jjx. 






t ay£/z l£. Jmu . 



{ycr/^//inc/l- . 



r^i ) 

llse Goldfinch, Carduells. 
Numb. LXIV. 

ITS Weight is one Ounce and one Dram ; its Length from the End of the Bill to the 
End of the Tail, fiye Inches and a half; Breadth between the Wings when extend- 
ed, nine Inches and a quarter ; its Head is big confidering the Bulk of his Body, and its 
Neck Ihort ; the Bill whitifh, but in fome Birds black at the very Pomt, of a conical 
Figure, a little more than half an Inch long ; its Tongue (harp, Eyes Hazel coloured ;. 
a Ring of Scarlet coloured Feathers encompafles the Bafis of the Bill ; from the Eyes to 
the Bill, on each Side, is a Line of black ; the Jaws are white, and the Top of tha 
Head black, from which a broad black Line produced on both Sides, almofl to the Neck, 
terminates the white ; the Neck and fore-part of the Back are of a fulvous or yellowi{h 
brown ; the Rump, Breaft and Sides arc the fame, but paler, the Belly white, the Wings- 
and Tail black j the Tips of the principal Feathers in both are white, and the Wings are. 
adorned with a moft beautiful tranfverfe Stroak of yellow ; the Tail is two Inches long^ 
compofed of twelve black Feathers, of which the two outermofl have large white Spots 
on their Tips, the next lefTer, the third none, the fourth a little one, the fifth a greater. 

The Legs are {hort, the back Toe ftrong, armed with a Claw longer than the reft j the 
lower part of the outer fore Toe grows faft to that of the middle Toe ; the blind Guts, as 
in other Birds, are very fhort and little; it hath alfo a Gall-bladder. The Hen Bird hath 
a fmaller Note than the Cock, and fings not fo much ; the Feathers on the Ridge of the 
Wing are dusky or cinereous, whereas in the Cock they are Jet black; by which Marks 
either Sexes may be diftinguiflied. 

Thefe Birds for their Beauty of Colours, and Sweetnefs of finging, are highly efteemed,.. 
being of a mild and gentle Nature, as appears by their eating and drinking as foon ascaUght,, 
and prefently become tame, fo as to be in Love with their Imprilonment. They are very 
docible, drawing their Water in a little Ivory Bucket made for that Purpofe. Their Food 
is the Seeds of Thiftles, Teafel, Dock and Poppy, as Albertus makes mention.. 

They chufe to build their Neft in the moft thorny Bufties, laying fix or feven Eggs ;. 
Bellonius affirms eight : Their Neft is built of Mofs and Wool, the infide with all Sorts 
of Hair which they find on the Ground. You may breed up the young ones, taking thems 
at ten Days old, feeding them with Herapfeed beat and fifted. Flower of Canary, and 
Crumbs of white Bread and Water, making it frefti every Day ; thefe Birds bred from the? 
Neft the Cocks will couple Vv'ith a Hen Canary Bird, and produce a Bird between both> 
kinds, partaking of the Song and Colours of each. Several of thefe I faw bred by Mrs- 
Crawley, a Lady very curious in Birds. Thefe Birds, when they feed themfelves, muft: 
have now and then a fmall Quantity of Letiice andPIantin Leaves, which will fcour the 
Oil of the Seed from the Stomach, and make him thrive better ; likewife give him a fmall: 
Quantity of Loom in the Bottom of his Cage, or a Piece of Loaf Sugar, in both of which 
they take great Delight. 

Their Phyiical Ules ; they reftore in Confumptions, and expel the Stone and Gravel, 
and all Pains and Obftrud:ions of the Reins and Bladder, which Virtue they retain fromi 
their feeding on the Thiftle and Burdock. 



R The 





(•JO 

The Canary Bird. Paffer Canarienfis. 
Numb. LXV. ' ^"^^ 

IT is of the BIgnefs of the common 'Titmoufe, hath a fmall white Bill, thick at 
the Bafe, and contrafted into a fhaip Point ; all the Feathers of the Wings 
.^nd Tail are of a green Colour. Some of them are white, and varioufly motled with yel- 
iow ; the Cocks on the Breaft, Belly and upper Part of the Head adjoining to the Bill are 
.more yellow .than the Hens ; they have a fweet and fhrill Note, which at one Breath is 
jcontinued for a long time without Intermiffion ; it can draw out fometimes in Length, 
■ibmetimes rife very high, by a various and almoft muiical Inflexion of its Voice, making 
very pleafant and artificial Melody. The German Birds are accounted the beft, excelling 
in Handfomenefs and Song thofe brought out of the Ca?taries ; they are never fubjed to 
;be fat, their High Mettle, and lavilh Singing will hardly fuffer them to maintain Flefh on 
/their Backs,' much lefs fat. When you make Choice of a Bird, let him (land with Life 
:and Boldnefs, and not crouching nor fearful, hearing him fmg in a fingle Cage, fo you 
: will be fure not to be cheated with a Hen for a Cock ; he that hath the moft Variety of 
.Notes, and the longeft Song, is the befl Bird. You muft likewife obfcrve his Duno- 
"which in a healthy Bird lies round and hard, with a fine White on tlie outfide, and dark 
within ; if he bolts his Tail after he hath dunged, or if his Dung be very thin, with a 
llimy White, and no Blacknefs in it, the Bird is not healthful. 

They are bred in Cages, or convenient Rooms fitted for that Purpofe, towards the Sun 
rifing hanging little Nets, filled with Cotton Wool, fmall dead Grafs, Mofs and Elks Hair 
mixed together, placing Heath Brooms, opening them in the Middle, or fmall Basket Nefts 
for them to build in, placing likewife Perches or Boughs of Trees for them to fly upon 
which they very much delight in, letting them have a good Quantity of Meat and Water 
,to laft them for fome time, that you may not difturb them too often when they are 
building. When you perceive them begin to build, give them Chickweed, Turfs of Moufe- 
Ear, and fome Loaf Sugar ; thefe caufe the Hen to lay her Eggs more freely. The Hen 
many times dies in laying her firft Egg, which lofes your firil Brood, and unpairs the 
Cock, which you muft take our, and match him again if poflible. When you find 
they have finifhed their Nefts, take away the Nets that have the breeding Materials in 
them. Tiiey breed ufually three Times a Year, beginning in April, and breed in May and 
"June, and fometimes m Auguji, which is not very ufual, neither here nor in Germany. 

The young Birds muft be taken at nine or ten Days old, or elfe they will grow fullen, 
and not feed kindly; put them in a little Baflcet, covering them with a Net, elfe they 
will be apt to jump out when you firft open the Baflcetj and if they fall to the Ground, 
they will be bruifed and die ; you muft keep them warm for a Week or more, they being 
very tender, and upon taking Cold are fubjeft to the Cramp, and will not digeft their Meat : 
You muft take them in the Evening, and, if poflible, not perceived by the old ones, which 
are apt to take Diftafte when they fit again, and have young ones, and will almoft at eve- 
ry Fright forfake both their young and Eggs. Make their Meat after this manner; take 
Flower of Canary Seed, and the Infide of fcalded Hem.pfeed, of each a like Quantity, half 
the Yolk of a boil'd Egg, and twice that Quantity of the Crumb of a ftale white Roll 
fcalded -, mix and give it your young Birds : With this Food you may bring up Canary 
Birds, Linnets, Goldfinches, Buffinches, and all young Birds that feed on Seeds : When they 
begin to feed themfelves, fcald fome Rape-feed and ftrew over the aforefaid Meat, till 
they are able to hull the Seed without fcalding ; in hot Vv^eather you muft make it freih 
two or three times a Day, giving them but little at a Time. 

The 



65 




EUzALl;inL>cKrL ''Cana-7y:.e?i^'T^r Canariri 



C-aruziy Bud 



6t 




Ziitea ^zij 



/: r. 



Wik^' 



1 



/^/^/^/^ 



( ^3 ) 

TheTelloiv Hammer, Emberiza Flava. ^^ 

Numb. LXVI. 

IT is equal to tht Chaffinch, or a little bigger, weighs one Ounce and two 
Drams ; its Length from the End of the Bill to the End of the Tail is fix 
Inches and a half; Breadth when extended ten Inches and a quarter; its 
Bill is of a dark dusky Colour, half an Inch long, having a hard Knob in the 
upper Chap, to break the Corn, the Sides of the nether Chap turned 
inwards and bent together, like the Buntings ; the Tongue fhorter than 
is ufual in other Birds, not reaching beyond the Knob ; its Tip horny 
and fharp, flit into Filaments ; the Eyes Hazel coloured ; the Feet of a 
Horn Colour, and the Claws black ; the like Cohefion between the outer- 
mofl and middle Toe at the Bottom, as in other Birds. 

The Throat and Belly arc yellow, and the Breaft hath a Tin£ture o£ 
red mingled with it, as alfo the Sides under the Wings; the Head is of a 
greenifh yellow fpotted with brown, and above the Shoulders in the lower 
Part of the Neck, is a Colour between green and cinereous, or a Compound 
of both ; the middle Parts of the covert Feathers of the Back and Shoul- 
ders are black, the Edges from green incline to red, and. the Rump is 
redifh. The Female is all over paler, lefs yellow on the Head, and lefs 
red on the Breaft, and under the Wings, The quill Feathers of the Wings 
are dusky, having their exterior Edges from green inclining to a fordid 
white. The Tail is three Inches long, compos'd of twelve Feathers fome- 
thing forked, of a brov/n Colour ; the middle two having their Edges on 
both Sides, the reft only their outfide Edges green ; the two outermoft 
on the infide the Shaft, near the Tip, are marked with a white Spot cut- 
ting the Feather obliquely. It hath a Craw, and a m'ufculous Stomach or" 
Gizzard like the granivorous Birds, alfo a Gall-bladder ; the blind Guts, 
as in almoft all fmall Birds, are very little and fhort. They build on the 
Ground, in the Sides of Hedges, and are very common every where in 
England. 



The 




2>7 



(«J4) 

TToe Herm^:, or- Heronpsavoi. Ardea cinerea major five Pella. 

Numb. LXVII. 

ITS Weight is three Pound fourteen Ounces and twelve Dra ms ; Length from the 
End of the Bill to the End of the Claws four Foot ; Breadth when the Wings arc 
extended five Foot ; the foremoil Feathers of the Head are white, fucceeded by a black 
Creft four Inches and a half long ; the Chin white, and the Neck white and afh coloured, 
with Spots of black, and on the lower Part grows fmall, long white Feathers 5 the Back 
(on which grows nothing but Down ) is covered with thofc long Feathers that fpring 
from the Shoulders and are variegated with whitifh Strokes tending downwards ; on the 
middle part of the Breaft, and lower part of the Rump, is a yellowifh Caft or dun Co- 
lourj and under the Shoulders is a black Spot, from which a black Line is drawn to the 
Vent. The prime Feathers of the Wings are twenty feven in number, the lafl: of which 
are afh coloured, and all the reft black, except the outer Edges of the eleven and twelve 
which are fomewhat cinereous, as are the under Sides of all of them ; the Feathers of the 
Baftard Wing are black ; under the Baftard Wing is a great white Spot, alfo white Fea- 
thers cover the Root of the Baftard Wing above, then a white Line is continued all along 
the Bafis or Ridge of the Wing as far as its fetting on ; ten of the fecond Row of Winc>- 
Feathers are black, then four or five have their exterior Borders white, and all the reft are 
afh coloured ; the Tail alfo is afh coloured, feven Inches long, and made up of twelve 
Feathers. Its Bill is great, ftrong, ftreight, from a thick Bafe gently lefiening into a fharp 
Point ; from the Tip to the Angles of the Mouth five Inches and a half long, of a brown- 
ifh red Colour, in fome of a yellowifh green -, the upper Mandible is a little longer than 
the nether, and therein a Furrow or Grove imprelTed, reaching from the Noftrils to the 
outermoft Tip ; its Sides towards the Point are fomething rough, and as it were ferrate, 
for the fafter holding of flippery Fiflies ; the lower Mandible is more yellow, and the Sides 
of both are thinned into very fharp Edges; the Mouth gapes wide, the Tongue is fharp 
and long but not hard ; the Eye-lids, and that naked Space between the Eyes and the 
Bill are green ; the Noftrils are oblong narrow Chinks. The Legs and Feet are of a 
fwarthy green Colour, and the Toes very long; the outermoft fore Toes are joined to the 
middle by a Membrane below, and the inner Edge of the middle Claw is ferrate, which is 
worthy of Notice; its Stomach is large and flaggy, rather membranous than mufculous, 
as in carnivorous Birds; in which, when diffeded, was found Ivy-leaved Duckmeat', theGuts 
towards the Vent, where the blind Guts are fituate, are longer than in other Birds; it 
hath not two blind Guts, one on each Side as in other Birds, but only one, like Quadru- 
peds, but that bigger than ordinary ; the Gullet under the Chin is dilated into a great 
Widencfs ; in the middle of the merry Thought is an Appendix, and it hath a long Gail- 
Bladder. Gefner counts but eleven Vertebres in the Neck; but Mr. Willoughby hath ob- 
ferved fifteen, of which the fifth hath a contrary Pofition; it feeds on Fifhes, Frogs, &c. 
a«d oftentimes ftrikcs and wounds greater Fifhes than it can draw out or carry away. You 
may bring up young Herons by feeding them with Guts and Entrails of Fifh and Flcfh. 
It fits fometimes with its Neck fo bent up, that its Head is drawn down to ftand bctvi^een 
its Shoulders. They build on the Tops of great Trees, and many of them together -, 
there are Heronries in England where they are accuftomed to breed, which are yearly of 
good Profit to the Owners. 

^ The 



(>7 





E. aai'ndf/. 



/Zrd^.a^/tr//ar7'j . 



TSu.d'r', 



S'/te 'Biae^^. 



( <5t ) 

The "Bittern. Ardea Stcllaris. 
Numb. LXVIII. 

IT S Length from the point of the Bill to the end of the Claws is thirty eight In- 
ches : Its Head is fmall, narrow and comprefTcd on the Sides , the Crown black ; at 
the Angles of the Mouth on each fide is a black Spot: The Throat and fides of the 
Neck are red with narrow tranfverfe Lines ; the Neck is cloathed with very long Fea- 
thers, which makes it feem both {horter and bigger than it is : The long Feathers on the 
Breaft are black in their middles. The whole Bird is of a yellowifh brown variegated 
with Spots and tranfverfe Lines of black ; on the fore part of the Neck, Belly and Back 
the Spots are much larger : The quill Feathers of the Wings are fliorter than in the 
common Heron : The tips of the greater Feathers are black ; the lefTer Rows and covert 
Feathers are of a paler Colour. The Tail is very {hort, made up of ten Feathers of 
the fame Colour with the Wing-Feathers. 

Its Bill is flreight, flrong, thick at the Head, and growing flenderer by Degrees to 
the Point, of a greenifh Colour, having fharp Sides or Edges : The Sides of the lower 
Mandible fall within the upper, v^^hen the Mouth is fhut. The upper Chap hath a long 
Furrow or Channel excavated on each Side, wherein are the Noftrils. The Tongue is 
{harp, not reaching fcarce to the middle of the Bill ; the IrUes of the Eyes are yel- 
low ; the flit of the Mouth is very wide, running beyond the Eyes to the hinder pare 
of the Head, fo that the Eyes feem to be fituate in the very Bill ; under the Eyes the 
Skin is bare of Feathers and of a green Colour j the Ears are great and wide open ; the 
Shanks are bare a litde above the Knees; the Feet green; the Toes great and very 
long, armed alfo with long and ftrong Talons ; that of the middle Toe ferate on the in- 
terior Edge, for the better holding Eels and other flippery Fifh, as in the reft of this 
kind. The back Claw is remarkably thick and long above the reft ; the outermoft fore 
Toe is join'd to the middlcm.oft at the bottom by a Membrane. 

It begins to bellow about the beginning of February^ and ceafes when breeding time 
is over. It hides itfelf commonly among Reeds and Rufhes, with its Head ereft. In 
the Autumn after Sun-fet thefe Birds are wont to foar aloft in the Air with a fpiral 
Afcent fo high till they get quite out of Sight, in the mean time making a fingular kind 
of Noife nothing like to lowing. 

It hath no Craw, only one bhnd Gut, like the reft of this kind, half an Inch longj 
the Gullet juft below the Bill may be vaftly dilated, fo as to admit a Man's Fift; in the 
Stomach, when differed, v/as found the Fur and Bones of Mice. It builds upon the 
Ground and commonly on a Tuft o1 Ruflies ; lays four or five Eggs of a round Figure 
and whitifli Colour, inclining to cinereous or green not fpotted at all. Mr. Ray is of O- 
pinion that this is the Bird which the common People call the Night Raven, for ic 
flies in the Night and makes a hooping Noife, 






s 



Ihe 



lA 



{66) 
'rZ/ The Stone Curlew. Oedicnemus. 

Jo6- Numb. LXIX. 

ITS Length from the Tip of the Bill to the End of the Tail is eighteen 
Inches, and to the End of the Claws twenty ; its Breadth when the 
Wings are extended is thirty fix Inches ; the Length of the Bill meafuring 
from the Tip to the Angles of the Mouth two Inches ; the Bill is not much 
unlike a G^//'s, but ftreight, fharp pointed, black as far as the Noftrils, 
then yellow ; the hides of the Eyes and Edges of the Eye-iids arc yellow^ 
and under the Eyes is a bare fpace of a yellowifh green ; the Legs are 
long and yellow, and the Claws fraall and black ; it hath only three fore 
Toes, wanting the back Toe, all join'd together by a certain Membrane, 
which on the infide the middle Toe begins at the fecond Joint, on the 
outlide at the firft, and reaches almoft to the Claws of the outer Toes ; 
the Legs are very thick below the Knees, and the upper Legs are above 
half way bare of Feathers, which notes it to be a Water-fowl ; the Chin, 
Breaft and Thighs are whitifh ; the Throat, Neck, Back and Head cove- 
red with Feathers, having their middle Parts black, their Borders of aredilli 
afh Colour, like that of a Curlew^ and is called by thofe in Norfolk the 
Stone Curlew. In each Wing are about twenty nine quill Feathers ; the 
firft and fecond of which have a tranfverfe Spot of white, and their exte- 
rior Surface black; the four next to thefe black; the three following have 
their Bottoms and Tips white, then fucceed thirteen black ones ; alfo thofe 
next the Body are of the fame Colour with it ; the firft Feathers of the 
fecond Row are black, the reft have white Tips, and under the Tips a 
crofs Line or Border of black. In the leiTer Rows of Wing Feathers is a tranf- 
verfe Bed or Bar of white; the covert Feathers of the under Side of the 
Wings, efpecially thofe fpringing from the Shoulders are purely white ; 
the Tail is five Inches long, confifting of twelve Feathers variegated like 
thofe of the Body and Wings; the Guts great, the blind Guts three In- 
ches long, and the fingle umbilical Gut half an Inch. It breeds very late 
in the Year; the young ones have been found not able to fly in the latter 
End of OBober ; it is found common about Thetjord in Norfolk^ and its 
Cry is Hke that of the Green Plover, I have obferved them to run fwift- 
ly, and when they ftop, to ftand without any Motion of either Head or 
Body for a good ^ace of Time, not fo much as winking with their Eyes. 

"The 



-y-f 




/^li/sdc^m^nud . 



;• y''ii/7ie iitt^f'^' 



.70 




iie/<Ti 



'Ae l/'^tnlL 



The Woodcock. Scolopax. ' ^ r^- 

. Numb. LXX. . 

ITS Length from the Tip of the Bill to the End of the Tail is one Foot 
and three Inches ; Breadth when the V/ings are extended two Foot one 
Inch ; Weight eleven Ounces and a quarter ; the Bill is three Inches long : 
It is fbmething lefs than a Partridge-, the upper Side of the Body is par- 
ty-coloured of red, black and grey, very beautiful to behold ; from the 
Bill alrnoft to the middle of the Head, it is of a redifh afb Colour; the 
Breaft and Belly are grey with tranf\^erfe brown Lines, under the Tail it is 
fomewhat yellowifh ; the Chin is white v/ith a Tindure of yellow ; a 
black Line on each Side between the Eye and Bill; the Back of the Head 
is moft black with two or three crols Bars of a teftaceous Colour. The prime 
Feathers in each Wing are about twenty three, black crofled with red Bars ; 
the Feathers under the Wings are curioully variegated with grey and brown. 
Lines ; the Tail is three and three eight Parts of an Inch long, conlifting 
of twelve Feathers ; the Tips of them are cinereous above, and white un- 
derneath ; their Borders or Outiides as it were indented with red ; the re- 
maining Part black. The Bill is dark brown towards the End, near the 
Head paler or Flefh coloured ; the upper Mandible a very little longer 
than the nether ; the Tongue nervous, the Palate rough, and the Ears 
large and open. The Eyes ftand further back in the Head than in other 
Birds, that they may not be hurt when fhe thrufts her Bill deep into the 
Ground ; the Legs, Feet and Toes are of a pale dusky Colour ; the Claws 
black, and the Back Toe very little, having alfo but a little Claw. The 
Liver is divided into two Lobes, having a Gall Bladder annexed; the Guts 
are long and flender, and have many Revolutions ; the blind Guts are very 
fhort. Thefe are Birds of Paffage, coming over to England'ni Autumn, and de- 
parting again in the Beginning of the Spring, yet they pair before they go, 
Hying two together, a Male and a Female ; they frequent efpecially moiH: 
V/oods and Rivulets near Hedges : They are faid both to come and fly 
away in foggy Weather, and it is not rightly known where they go. 

The Flefh of this Bird for Delicacy of its Tafte is in high Efteem, and 
is preferred before the Partridge. Some Stragglers which by Accident are 
left behind, remain in England all Summer, and breed here ; their Eggs 
are long, of a pale red Colour, and flained with deep Spots and 
Clouds. 

The 




( <S8 ) 

The Snipe, or Suite. Gallinago minor. 
Numb. LXXI. 

ITS Lengtli from the Point of the Bill to the End of the Tail is twelve In- 
ches and a quarter ; its Breadth when the Wings are extended fixteen 
Inches 3 Weight three Ounces and fix Drams: A pale red Line divides the 
Head in the middle longwaysjand on each Side parallel thereto, a Lift of black, 
and without the black over the Eyes, another Line of the fame Colour with 
that drawn along the middle of the Head; between the Eyes and the Bill 
are a dusky brown Line ; the Chin under the Bill is white; the long Fea- 
thers fpringing from the Shoulders reach almoft to the Tail, having their 
outward half from the fhaft of a pale red, the inner black and gliftering, 
and their Tips red ; which Colours fucceeding one another, make two Lines 
.down the Back ; the covert Feathers of the Back are dusky with tranfverfe 
white Lines ; thofe incumbent on the Tail are red croffed with black Lines; 
the greater covert Feathers of the Wings are dusky, with white Tips, the 
leffer are party-coloured with black, red and grey, and the infide Coverts 
are curioufly variegated with brown and white Lines. The quill Feathers 
of the Wings are twenty four in Number, of which the outer Edge of the 
outermoft is white almoft to the Tip ; of the fucceeding the Tips arefome- 
thing white, but more clearly from the eleventh to the twenty firft, elfe 
they arc all brown, but the laft five arc variegated with tranfverfe black 
and pale red Lines. The Tail is compos'd of twelve Feathers two Inches 
and a half long ; the Tips of its outermoft Feathers are white, the reft of 
the Feathers are varied with crofs Bars of brown, and grey or pale red Colour ; 
the reft of the Tail Feathers are variegated with black, brown, red and white, 
with feme dusky Spots, and are not exactly alike in all Birds; the Bill is al- 
moft three Inches long, black at the Tip, and fomewhat broad and cham- 
fered ; the Tongue is (harp, the Irtcies of the Eyes are hazel coloured ; the Legs 
are of a pale green, the Talons black, the Toes long and feparated from the 
firft Rife, without any Connection or Cohefion, and the back Toe is very 
fmall. The Liver is divided into two Lobes, with a large Gall appendent; 
the Stomach is not flefhy : Its Flefti is tender, fweet, and of an excellent Reiifti. 
It lives chiefly on the fat undluous Humour it fucks out of the Earth ; 
but feeds alfo on Worms and other Infe<£ls. Some of thefe Birds abide with 
us all the Summer, and build in our Moors and Marfhes, laying four or 
five Eggs at a breeding Time : The greateft Part of them leave us, and 
fly into other Countries; they feed in fenny Places and Drains of Water, 
z The 



V 




n^ 




i\on 




JSi£ai:/r^2/h^/:/e/m^. 



Sin^ n//^mtiX:/z£^fn^na^ 



^he Ticcif^ 



( ^9 ) 
The Ruff and Reeve. Avis pugnax. /p/aLjrA^% 

Numb. LXXII, and LXXIII. 

ITS Length from the Tip of the Bill to the End of the Tail is twelve 
Inches and a half; Breadth when the Wings are extended twenty five 
Inches ; Weight fix Ounces ; its Bill is one Inch and a half long, of a yel- 
low Colour ; the fore-part of the Head is of a dufky cinereous Colour 
fpotted with red ; the upper part of the Ruff and Top of the Head is of a 
pale buff Colour, and the under part black, as is alfo the Breaft ; the lower 
part of the Belly and Thighs are white ; the Back and covert Feathers of the 
Wings, and feveral of the quill Feathers next the Body, are of a pale 
cinereous Colour fpotted with black, and the firft five or fix prime Fea- 
thers of the Wings are all black. The Legs three Inches and a half to the 
Knee are of an Orange Colour, and bare of Feathers more than halfway above 
Joint; the back Toe fmall, the Claws black, and almofl fli eight: In the 
Plumage of the Cocks there is fuch a wonderful and almofl infinite Vari- 
ety in their Colours, that in Spring Time there can fcarce be found 
any two exadlly alike, but after Midfummer, when they have moulted 
their Feathers, they fay they become all alike again. The Length of the 
Female is nine Inches and a half; Breadth nineteen Inches; they are of a 
dark brown on the Head, Neck, Back and Wings fpotted with black ; 
the Belly and Thighs are white ; the Legs and Feet are of an Orange 
Colour ; They never change their Colours ; their Stomach within is 
yellow, and the Gall large. They breed in Summer in the Fens of 
Lh: cohjhire 2ho\\t Crowland; they are fatted with white Bread and Milk, 
being fhut up in clofe dark Rooms ; for if you let them fee the Light, they 
prefently fall a fighting, never giving over till the one has killed the other. 
The Fowlers when they fee them intent upon fighting, fpread their Nets 
over them, and catch them before they are aware. The Hens never have 
any Ruffs, neither have the Cocks any immediately after moulting Time : 
When they begin to moult, white Tumours break out about their Eyes 
and Head. I had twelve of the Cocks brought to me, and every one va- 
ried from the other in their Colours. 



"Th 



:e 




( 70 ) 

'iL'UiO r^LJ^ The Lapw'mgj or Bafiard Plover. Capella five Vannellus. 

^^^' . Numb. LXXIV. 

ITS Length is thirteen Inches and a half; Breadth when the Wings are extended two 
Foot five Inches ; Weight is feven Ounces and a half, and oncDrarn. The Top of the 
Head above the Crefl: is of a fhining black ; the Creft fprings from the hind Part 
of the Head, and confifts of about twenty Feathers, of which the three or four fore- 
itiofl: are longer than the reft ; in fome Birds of three Inches Length, the Cheeks are white, 
only a black Line drawn under the Eyes through the Ears ; the whole Throat or under 
Side of the Neck, from the Bill to the Breaft, is black, which black part fomewhat re- 
fembles a Crefcent, ending in Horns on each Side the Neck; the Breaft and Belly are 
white, as are alfo the covert Feathers of the under Side of the Wings ; the Feathers un- 
der the Tail are of a lovely bright bay, and thofe above the Tail arc of a deeper bay; 
the Feathers next them are dufky with a certain Splendor ; the middle of the Back and the 
fcapular Feathers are of a delicate fhining green, adorned with a purple Spot on each 
Side next the Wings ; the outermoft Edges of the Tips of the middlemoft of the long fca- 
pular Feathers are whitifli ; the Neck alfo is of an afli Colour, with a Mixture of red, 
and fome black Lines near the Creft. The three or four outermoft quill Feathers of the 
Wings are black with white Tips ; the following to the eleventh are black, and from the 
eleventh they are white at Bottom ; the hindmoft are more in order than the fore*.' 
nioft ; yet this white doth not appear in the upper Side of the Wing, but is hid by the 
covert Feathers ; thofe next the Body from the twenty firft are green ; the leftcr covert 
Feathers are beautified with purple, blue and green Colours varioufly intermixed ; the 
outermoft Feather on each Side is white, faving a black Spot in the exterior Web; the 
Tips of all the reft are white ; the Bill is black, hard, roundifli, of an Inch in Length; 
the upper Mandible a little more produced ; the Tongue not cloven; but its Sides refledl- 
ing upwards make a Channel in the middle; the Noftrilsare oblong, and furniftied with a 
flexile Bone; the Ears feem to be fituate lower in this than in other Birds, and the Eyes 
are hazel coloured. The Feet are long and redifh, in fome brown ; the back Toe fmall, 
and the outermoft fore Toe is joined to the middle one at the Bottom. The Liver is large, 
divided into two Lobes, with a Gall annexed ; the Gizzard is not fo thick and flefhy as in 
granivorous Birds, and therein was found Beetles like to Meal Worms ; they are fometimes 
infefted with Lice. They lay four or five Eggs of a dirty yellow, with great Spots and 
Stroaks of black : They build on the Ground, in the middle of fome Field or Heath open 
and expofed to view, only laying fome few Straws or Bents above the Eggs, that the Neft 
be not feen ; the young as foon as they are hatcht inftantly forfake the Neft, and follow 
the old ones like Chickens. Thefe Birds are very ufcful in Gardens in the Summer time, 
deftroying both Worms and Infeds ; and in Summer they fly not in Companies as in 
Winter. 

The 



7^ 




js. au^'fvdd. 



7^ne//ud . 



V/u,truyr. 



Mi€^ J^apnn.fw /%^'tj/' 



'■^.i-^ 




£. ^//^n£^. 



J'/i/l'za-//^ Iffi'^ 



T'e^ d 'J^ii^zri&r. 



The ^■eenJ^l^nv^.ii 



( 71 ) 
The Green Plover, Pluvialis viridis. 
Numb. LXXV. 

IN Bignefs it equals or exceeds the Lapwing, weighing about nine Oun- 
ces; its Length from the Tip of the Bill to the End of the Tail is 
eleven Inches; Breadth when the Wings arc extended twenty four Inches; 
its Colour on the Top of the Head, Neck, Shoulders, Back, and in gene- 
ral the whole upper Side, is of a dark brown, thick fet with yellowifh green 
Spots. If you obferve each iingle Feather, you will find the middle part 
to be dark brown,inclining to a black, and the Borders or Edges round about 
fpotted with a yellowifh green Colour ; the Bill is ftreight and black, an 
Inch long, furrowed about the Noftrils ; the Neck is fhort, equal to a Lap- 
wings, ; the Breaft is of a pale brown, fpotted with a little deeper Shade 
of the fame Colour ; the Belly is white, yet fome Feathers on the Sides 
arc faintly fpotted with brown. 

Of the quill Feathers in each Wing the eleventh Ends in a blunt Point, 
thofe before it running out into fharp Points on the outfide the Shaft, thofe 
behind it on the infide ; all but the five next the Body are brown ; the Shafts 
of the outcrmoft eight or nine are half way white ; the exterior Edges of 
the fifth and thofe following it are a little white towards their Bottoms ; 
the innermofl: five next the Body are of the fame Colour with the Back ; 
the fecondRow of Wing Feathers are brown, or dufky with white Tips; 
the reft of the covert Feathers of the upper Side of the Wing are of the 
fame Colour with the Back, thofe on the under Side, with the Belly ; the 
Tail is fhort, made up of twelve Feathers of the fame Colour with the 
Back, when fpread, terminated in a circular Circumference. 

The Feet and Claws are black ; it wants the back Toe ; and by its Note 
alone it is abundantly diftinguifhed from the other Birds of its Kind ; its 
Legs are long as in all other Birds which live about Waters, and bare of 
Feathers for fome Space above the Knees ; its Flefh is fweet and tender, 
and therefore highly efteemed, and accounted a choice Di£h as well in 
England 2.^ beyond Sea. This Bird from its Spots, fomethjng refembling 
thofe of a Leopard-, is called Pardalh. 

The 






(7V) 

f?^ //' 1//U ^^^ ^^^^ Plover. Pluvialis cinerea. 

^ y ^ Numb. LXXVI. 

ITS Length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Tail 
is twelve Inches long, to the Claws fourteen Inches; 
Breadth when the Wings are extended twenty four Inches. 
Its Head, Back, and lefTer covert Feathers of the Wings are 
black, with tips of a greenilh grey ; the Chin is white, the 
^ Throat, Breaft, Belly and Thighs white. The quill Fea- 

thers in each Wing are about twenty fix, of which the iirft 
or outermofh are black ; in the fourth the middle Part of the 
outer Edges is white, the white Part in the five following 
being enlarged gradually ; the outermoft of the fecond Row 
of Wing Feathers are alfo black ; the Tips of thofenext after 
the fourth are white, and the Edges too after the tenth ; of 
the third Row the foremoft ten are black with white Tips ; 
the Tail is three Inches long, not forked, varied with tranf- 
verfe Bars or Beds of black and white. Its Bill is black, 
above an Inch long, like to the reft of this kind ; the Tongue 
not cloven, the back Toe very fmall, and the fore Toes join- 
ed by a Membrane at the Beginning of their Divarication ; 
that between the middle and innermoft lefltr ; the Feet are 
of a fordid green, and the Claws little and black : It hath a 
Gall. The Flefli alfo of this Bird is very tender, favoury 
and delicate, and in no iefs Efteem than that of the former. 



n< 



7L 




^/rtn^del . 



T^/ufza/i^j Ci'nf/f^a- 



2^Ae t^re^//^/(n''e^' 



T? 




^%.^^hn.^^Z^h. JL^/^uJ.4f^^^^^uJ.. JLz//^ 27i^ Tf^,^,- J?.z// . 



( 73 ) 
the Water Rati Rallus Aquaticus. // UClC^A- 

Numb. LXXVII. 



/ 



j/^y 



ITS like the common Water Hen, but lefs, and bigger than a ^aH\ cfF 
a flender, narrow or compreffed Body ; from the Point of the Bill to the 
End of the Tail is iilmches, and to the End ofthe Claws is fixteen Inches 
long ; Breadth fourteen Inches and a half; its Head is fmall, narrow or 
compreffed fideways j its Bill like the Ruff's, about two Inches long, ftreight, 
compreffed likewife fideways ; it is red, efpecially the lower Mandible and 
lower part of the upper ; for toward the Top it is black, fmooth and hard ; 
the Tongue reaches to the very End of the Bill, and is white and rough 
at the Tip ; it hath a round, black, bald Spot, or naked Skin in the Fore- 
head, but much lefs than that ofthe Cootj fo little that it is fcarce obfervable* 
The Colour ofthe Head, Shoulders, Back, covert Feathers of the Wings, in 
fhort, the whole upper Side, is a Variety of black, dark brown and Olive 
Colour, each iingle Feather having its middle part black, and its Edges O- 
live coloured; the Chin is white ; the Throat red, with .a Mixture of afh 
Colour ; the extreme Edges, and as it were Fringes of the Feathers being 
a little grey ; the Breaft is more blue, with a Bed of white in the middle ; 
on the Thighs, and Sides under the Wings, grow black Feathers elegantly 
variegated with tranfverfe white Lines; the Belly is ruffet, with white 
Feathers under the Tail, like the common Moore Hen, marked with one or 
two black Spots ; the Wings arc hollow, the Quill Feathers fhort, black, or 
very near it, in number twenty two ; along the Bafis ofthe Wing is a Line 
of white, as in the Moore Hen; the Tail is about two Inches long, of an ob- 
icurc brown, fomewhat inclining to black, only the Edges ofthe two middle 
Feathers are redifli ; the I^egsand Feet are of a dark redifh brown, the Legs 
being ftrong ; the Toes, as in the reft of this kind, very long, divided from 
the very Rife, except that the outer Toe is joined to the middle by a Mem- 
brane at the Bottom ; the Claws are of the fame Colour with the Toes : It 
had a great, long, crooked Gall-bladder, and a large Gall-pore, befideslong 
blind-Guts, filled with Excrements, and a mufcuious Stomach, in which. 
was found a Shell Snail. 

It runs very fwiftly, and hide sit felf about the Banks of Rivers ; it walks 
rather than fwims in the Water, and flies with its Feet hanging down. It is 
called at Venice, Forzane or Porzana, a Name common to other Water' 
Hens alfo. 

U . 7he 



ffil'll^^h. 



(74) 

The Sea-F'iey or Olive, Hsematopus. 



J^ Numb. LXXVIII. 

C/ TTTS Length from the Tip of the Bill to the End of the Tail is one Foot 

\ four Inches ; Breadth when the Wings are extended, thirty Inches and 
a half ; Weight feven Ounces and a half; its Bill is ftreight, two Inches and 
a half long, narrow, and compreffed fideways, ending in a fharp Point of 
a red Colour ; by its Figure the Bill feems to be framed by Nature to thruft 
-under Limpets^ and to raife them from the Rocks, that fo it may feed 
upon their Meat ; the upper Chap is a little longer than the nether ; the 
Ir'tdes of the Eyes, and Edges of the Eye-lids of a curious red Colour ; the 
Legs and Feet yellowifli red, in fome Orange Colour; the outermoft 
Toe and middle Toe are joined together by a Membrane : So that this Bird 
ieems to be of a middle nature between whole and cloven Footed ; the 
Claws were black, and the Head, Neck, Back and Throat to the middle 
of the Breaft, are black ; the reft of the Breaft and Belly white, as alfo 
the Rump ; from this Likenefs of Colour it took the Name oiSea-P'ie, In 
one Bird there was a white Spot under the Chin, and another lelTer under 
each Eye. 

The Tail is made up of twelve equal Feathers of four Inches long, the 
lower half white, the upper black ; the prime Feathers of each Wing are 
about twenty eight, of which the jfirft is black, having only the interior 
Edge white; the reft in order, the white Part is enlarged, till in the twen- 
tieth and three following it takes up the whole Feather ; the fucceeding 
from the twenty third grow gradually black again ; the covert Feathers of 
the middle Quills are white, and together make a tranfverfe Bed of white 
in the Wing. 

The Stomach is great, not mufculous, but membranous, in which dif- 
felted were found Limpets entire, upon which it feems chiefly to feed and 
live, as from the Make of its Bill was gathered before ; it hath a great Li- 
ver divided into two Lobes, with a Gall annexed, and a fmall Spleen ; the 
Cock differs from the Hen in Colour, and its Flefh is very black and hard, 
having a rank Tafte, being very bad Meat, which is to be wondered at, 
feeing it feeds chiefly upon Shell-fifli, as do alfo the beft reliflied and moft 
favoury of Water-fowl. On the Coaft of IVales^ and elfewhere on the 
Wcftern Shore? of England^ there is a great many of thefe Birds. 

The 




I 




t2*Yua/a ■ 



£TK6ce-u^ . 



^Ae 'T^'a^t&r ^M^^^^/w . 



( 7; ) 

The Curlew. Arquata. 

Numb. LXXIX. 

ITS Length from the tip of the Bill to the end of the Claws is twenty 
nine Inches, to the end of the Tail twenty three and half; breadth, 
when the Wings are extended, forty Inches. The Male is fomewhat lefsy 
and commonly call'd, T/je Jack Curlew. The middle parts of the Feathers 
of the Head, Neck and Back are black ; the Borders or Edges in the Breaft 
white ; in the Throat whitifli with a tindure of red ; the Rump and Belly 
white; the Feathers invefting the under fide of the Wing are all white j 
the firil: Row or outmoft Quill -Feathers are all over black; the reft fpotted 
with white : The firft Feather of the fecond Row is all black ; the tips 
of the eight or nine next are white. This Bird hath a fmall fharp- 
pointed black Feather at the end of the Wing, which whether or no it 
is to be reckon'd among the Quill -Feathers one may juftly doubt. Its 
Bill is iix Inches long, narrow, bowed of a dark brown or black Colour ; 
its Tongue fharp and very fhort, extending not farther than the Angle of 
the lower Chap; the Noftrils long; the Legs long, of a du Iky blue Co- 
lour, bare of Feathers half up the fecond Joint: The Claws are fmalt 
and black, that of the middle Toe thinned into an Edge on the inlide ; all 
the Toes are connefted by a thick Membrane from the Divarication to the 
iirft Joint. It hath a great Gall-Bladder, with a long Neck extending to the 
Gut, which concurs not in one common Faffage with the Gall-pore, but 
enters the Gut at a diftindl Hole, tho' near to that. 

It hath a mufculous Stomach or Gizzard like granivorous Birds; in 
the Stomach of one was found Perriwmkle Shells, fmall Stones and Grit, 
^c. In another Frogs, 6)^c". The flngle blind Gut is very long; the com- 
mon blind Gut three or four Inches long and full of Excrements; above 
the Stomach the Gullet is dilated into a Bag, granulated v/ithin with thick 
fet papillary Grandulets. 

This Bird for the Goodnefs and delicate Tafte of its Flelh may juftly chal- 
lenge the principal place among W^ater-Fowi : Of this our Fowlers are 
not ignorant and therefore fell them dear. It is a Sea-Fowl, feeking its 
Food on the Sands and Ouze and in Salt-Marihes : It is found ontheSea- 
Coafts on all iides of En^and. 




The 




( 76 ) 



The Sea Lark. Charadrius. 



Numb. LXXX. 

ITS Length from the point of the Bill to the end of the Tall is eight Inches ; Breadth, 
when the Wings are extended, one Foot three Inches and a quarter ; Weight one 
Ounce thirteen Drams ; a Line of Black compafTes the Baie of the upper Bill j this black 
Line from the Corners of the Mouth is produced round the Eyes as far as the Ears, and 
then turns up and pafTes crofs the middle of the Head, encompaffing a broad Bed or 
Fillet of white drawn from the inner Corner of one Eye to the inner Corner of the 
jother. The hinder part of the Head is afh Colour'd ; the Chin white } the Neck encom- 
pafled by a double Ring or Collar ; the upper one white, which underneath reaches as 
far as the Bill, and under the Chin is dilated almoft to the Eyes j the lower black and pretty 
'broad: The Back and leiTer covert Feathers of the Wings are of a brownifh afh Colour; 
ihe Breaft and Belly white. 

The outermoft of the Quill-Feathers of the Wings is black, on the middle of the 
Shaft only fpotted with white, which Colour fpreads it felf gradually and continually 
more and more in the following Feathers, infomuch that the twentieth and twenty firft 
are wholly white; thofe next the Body are of the fame Colour with the Back ; the Fea- 
thers of the fecond Row have white Tips, excepting the foremoft or outermoft. The 
outermoft Feathers of the Tail on each Side are white, as alfo the tip and exterior half 
of the next; of the three following only the Tips: The two middlemoft are of the fame 
Colour with the Back or a little darker: The Tail is two Inches and a half long, made 
up of twelve Feathers, of which the two outermoft are the longeft j the reft of the in- 
terior Feathers fhorter in degrees. 

The Bill is fhort, fcarce an Inch long ; the upper Mandible a little longer and fome- 
what crooked, of two Colours in fome and in others black; the Tongue is not divided; 
the Eyes hazel colour'd: The Legs and Feet of a pale orange Colour; the Claws black; 
it wants the back Toe; the outermoft of the fore Toes is join'd to the middlemoft by a 
Membrane reaching to the firft Joint : The Stomach hath not very thick Mufcles, in it, 
when diffeded, was found Beetles ; the Gall-Bladder is large. 

It build* on the Sea-Rocks, making its Neft of Grafs, Straws, and Stalks of Plants; 
its Eggs are of a grecnifh Colour fpotted with brown, all the blue end being dufky. It 
runs very fwiftly on the Shoars, and makes ftiort Flights, finging or crying continually 
as it flies. It is with us in England every where very common upon the Sea-Coafts ; it 
is alfo about the Lake of Geneva, and on the Banks of the River Trent not far from 
Nottingha}!!. 

This Bird is the very fame which Marggravius defcribes Book V. Chap. 5. by the 
Name of Matnitui, as he faith the BraJiUans call it, as will clearly appear to him that 
{hall but compare them together ; fo that it feems there are fome Birds common to Eu- 
rope, and even to the Southern Parts of America. Leonard Baltner defcribes and pi(5ture$ 
two forts of this Bird ; perchance his lelTer kind is that which the JVelch call Goligod 
find fay is like a Sea-Lark, but lefs. 



The 



so 




-.,^:/^f::i:-r.-! 



'^K^rJft 



£/^ .yt^'in-afe/en' . 



CAamn^ryTJ ■ 



.^atce'itz dc 7^/ ■ 



2'/ie.Jai-Saf-/c . 



<?/ 







Cre-M^i^ Zffzm- orDiv^r, 



The Crefied Diver, Colymbus criftatus. ^Z^- 

Numb. LXXXI. 

TS Length from the Tip of the Bill to the end of the 
Claws is twenty four Inches ; Breadth thirty three In- 
ches ; Weight two Pound ^\q Ounces and a half. 

The Bill is two Inches and a quarter long, both Man- 
dibles where it joins to the Head tinctured with a redifh 
Colour ; theCreft black, beneath redifli brown, ending in a 
faint cinereous white towards the Eyes ; the upper Part of 
the Neck is adorned with a Ruff or Collar of Feathers Teem- 
ing much bigger than what it is, ending in black; the back 
Part of the Neck, Back and Wings are of a dark brown in- 
clining to black, excepting fome of the exterior Edges of 
the quill Feathers which are white. 

The Breaft and Belly are of a whitilli alh Colour, and the 
lower part brown; it hath no Tail at all; the Legs broad 
and flat, and the Toes are broad bordered on each Side with 
appendent Membranes, but not web'd together, of a pale 
green Colour, clouded in fome places with a redifh brown. 

The hind Toe is very little, and the Claws broad and flat, 
like the Nails of a Man's Hand. 



X The 



( 78 ) 

'liC/rl^ The Qreatefi Speckled D'nier. Colyml^us maximus Caudatus. 
3/jl Numb. LXXXIL 

ITS Length from the Point of the Bill to the End of the Claws is thirty 
one Inches, to the Tail is twenty eight ; Weight thirty fix Ounces ; 
the Length of its Bill is three Inches. 

This Bird feems to be of a middle Nature between whole footed Birds 
with four Toes, and thofe with three j it is near as big as a Goofe, lonp- 
bodied, hath a round Tail two Inches long ; the upper part of the Neck 
next the Head is covered with Feathers fo thick fet, that it feems to be big- 
ger tlian the Head it felf 

The Colour of the upper part, viz. the Neck, Shoulders, covert Feathers 
of the Wings, and whole Back, is a dark grey or dusky, pointed or fpeck- 
led with white Spots : Thefe Spots are bigger upon the long fcapular Fea- 
thers and Coverts of the Wings, and fmaller in the middle of the Back. 
The lower part of the Neck, Breaft and Belly are white ; the Number of 
quill Feathers in each Wing are about thirty, fhortand black; it hath a 
very fhort Tail like a Duck^ made up of at lead twenty Feathers; its Bill 
is ftreight and fliarp like that of the Guillemot^ both Mandibles black or li- 
vid, covered with Feathers down to the Noftrils ; it is whole Footed, and 
hath very long fore Toes, efpecially the outermoft ; the back Toe is very 
fhort and little ; its Legs are of a mean Length, but flat and broad like 
the Ends of Oars ; the exterior Surface is brown, and the interior livid or 
pale blue ; the Claws broad like human Nails : The Legs are fituate very 
backwards, fo that it feems not able to walk unlefs ercded perpendicular- 
ly on the Tail. It hath no Labyrinth upon the Wind-Pipe : The Liver is 
divided into two Lobes, and hath a Bladder to contain Gall ; above the Sto- 
mach the Gullet is dilated into a kind of Craw ; the Throat is very loofe 
and dilatable; the Guts large, efpecially towards the Stomach. 

The Stomach is lefs muiculous than in the Bird fhot on the River 71?^^ 
in fVarwickJh'tre-i and defcribed hy Mr. fViUoughby. Thefe Birds differ one 
from another in Colours ^ for fome of them have a Ring about their Necks ; 
their Back, Neck and Head blacker, and painted with little white Lines, 
others want the Ring, and have the upper Side of their Bodies more alh 
coloured or grey, varied with white Specks, and not Lines ; perhaps thefe 
are the Hens, and the other the Cocks. This Bird I had from Newgate 
Markety brought hither with other Wild Fowl. 

The 




Cc^m/ru^ J4i^ia:^miu C^iiz-r/^fyu 



//u: (} rm^iiJ.t^^/fi'c/^/rf/ S^irr r ^v- J^ r7 7i 



n 




^ 



( 79 ) 
The Bald Coot. Fulica. - ^i//^^Aj^ 

Numb. LXXXIII. ^2.0- 

ITS Length from the Tip of the Bill to the End of the Tail is eighteen 
Inches ; Breadth when the Wings are expanded, two Foot feven In- 
ches ; Weight thirty one Ounces ; the Bill is one Inch and a half long, 
is white, with a light Tin^ure of blue, fharp pointed, and a little compref- 
fed or narrow ; both Mandibles equal; the Feet are blewifh, or of a dusky 
green ; the back Toe little, with one only Membrane adhering, and that 
not fcallop'd, but extending all the Length of the Toe ; the inner fore Toe 
is a little fhorter than the outer, but all the Toes are longer than in whole 
Footed Birds; about the Joints of the Toes are Semi-circular Membranes 
appendent ; on the inner Toe two, on the middle three, and on the outer 
four. Thefe circular Membranes are bigger, and more diflindt on the in- 
iide of the Toes ; fo that the intermediate Incifures or Nicks reach to the 
very Joints. This may be thus briefly exprefled; the three fore Toes have 
lateral Membranes on each Side fcalloped, the inner with two, the middle 
Toe with three, and the outer with four Scallops ; from the Bill almoft to 
the Crown of the Flead, arifes an Excrefcency or Lobe of Fiefli, bare of 
Feathers, foft, fmooth and round, which they call the Baldnefs ; the Fea- 
thers about the Head and Neck are low, foft and thick ; the Colour all over 
the Body black, deeper about the Head ; the Bread and Belly are of a lead 
Colour ; the Thighs covered with Feathers almoft down to the Knees, and 
juft beneath the Feathers is a Ring of yellow about the Leg ; the firft ten 
quill Feathers are of a dark, dufky or black Colour, the eight next are 
lighter, with white Tips, and the laft or thofe next the Body are of a deeper 
black: The Tail conflfts of twelve Feathers, and is two Inches long. 

The Liver is great, divided into two Lobes, having a large Gall-bladder ; 
the blind Guts are nine Inches long, their Ends for an Inch's Space being 
reflecfted or double backwards : It builds its Neft of Grafs, broken Reed, 
8r'c. floating on the Top of the Water; fo that it rifes and falls together 
with the Water. The Reeds among which it is built flop it from being 
carried down by the Stream: It feldom flts upon Trees. The Flefli is not 
accounted good Meat, but in ltal<y it is moll eileemed. 

The 



C 8o ) 

The Guillemot^ or Sea Hen. 
^/^lltd^^A^ Numb. LXXXIV. 

32.^' TTT is almoft ag^blg as the common Duck\ its Length from the End of the 

\^ Bill to the End of the Tail is eighteen Inches and a half; the Breadth 
when extended two Foot fix Inches ; the Head, upper fide of the Neck, 
Back, Wings and Tail, and befide the Chin alfo, as far as the middle of 
the Throat, are of a dark brown or btackifh Colour; its Belly, Breaft,and 
the refl of its Throat are white ; the Tips of the eleven foremoft or out- 
ermofl Wing Feathers of the firfl: Row are white ; the Tail is two Inches 
long, confifting of twelve Feathers, the middlemoft of which is the long- 
eft, and the reft fhorter by Degrees to the outermoft. 

The Skin of the Stomach within is yellow; the Gall-bladder large, and 
the Tefticles in the Males large, from which the feminal Veflcls with vari- 
ous Windings and Refedions tend to the Vent. 

It lives and companies together with the Auks and Coulternehs.^ breeding 
after the fame Manner, and in the fame Places, but a much fimpler Bird, 
and more eafily taken. 

It breeds yearly on the fleep Cliiffs and inaccefUble Rocks of the Ifle of 
Man-i likewife on the Ifland or Rock call'd Godreave^ not far from St. Ives 
in Cornwall', alfo on PreJIholm Id^indy about a League diftant from Beau- 
maris in the J/Ie of Anglefey, where for want of frelh Water there are no 
Inhabitants nor any Buildings remaining, fave an old ruinous Chapel de- 
dicated to St. Sir'idan. This Bird alfo frequents and builds on the Farn- 
IJland-i nQ2iVXhtQo2Ldioi Northumberland, and the Cliffs about Scarborough 
in Torkjh'tre, in the Summer Months. 

This lays the biggeft Eggs of all this kind, more than three Inches long, 
very (harp at one end, and blunt at the other, of a bluifh green Colour, 
fomc varied with black Spots or Strokes, and fome without any. 

Some of thefe Birds vary in Colour, the Back of forae of them being 
very black, others of a brown or bay Colour. 



^be 




uLncieXlfV- 



/jiu/4^yntrCyrtmr, t^ r^een--lani^ ■ 



9S 




LciuirU^ ^rwnlandica 



the ^reerUimd -^i^z^^ or Jea ^urdeJ 



(8i) • 

The Greenland Dove. Columba Groenlandica. 

Numb. LXXXV. 

THIS Bird is about the Bignefs of a Pigeon^ and the 
Cock is all black except a large white Spot inclining 
to yellow on the middle of each Wing ; the Bill is black, 
fharp pointed, and a little crooked at the End, and promi- 
nent ; it hath in each Wing twenty fix quill Feathers. 

This Bird is looked upon to be the fame with that they 
call the Greenland Dove in Holland^ and the Puffinet of the 
Fame JJlands, which they fay is of the Bignefs of a Dove ; its 
whole Body is black in the Summer time, excepting the 
white Spot on the Wings, but in the Winter it turneth white ; 
it has a fliarp Bill, and it builds its Neft in the Holes of the 
Rocks, and lays two Eggs : It is thought to be the fame 
with the TV^r^/f of the Bafs IJland near Edinburgh in Scot- 
landy the Names and Bird very much agreeing. The Rea- 
fon of giving it the Name of the Dove or Turtle, is from its 
laying but two Eggs at one Time. 

The Legs of the Cock are red, thofe of the Hen of a 
browniih Alli, both wanting the back Toe ; the Hen hath not 
the white Spot on the Wing ; the Head, Neck, Back and 
Wings are of a dark brown inclining to black, and the whole 
Belly white. 



ne 








yi(P^ 



\ 



^ ♦ ( 8i) 

rhe Soland Goofe. Anfer Baffenus^ 

Numb. LXXXVI. 

ITS Length from the Point of the Bill to the End of the Tail is two Foot four Inches 
and a quarter ; Breadth when the Wings are extended three Foot fix Inches ; Weight 
two Pound fifteen Ounces ; in Bignefs it equals the tame Goofe. 

Its Bill is three Inches and a half long, ftreighc, of a dark afh Colour, a little crooked 
at the Point, having on each Side, not far from the Hook, an angular Appendix or Tooth, 
like the Bills of fome rapacious Birds ; beyond the Eyes the Skin on the Sides of the Head 
is bare of Feathers, as in the Cormorant ; the Palate, and all the Infide of the Mouth is 
black, and the Slit of the Mouth is wide ; at the Angle of the Upfilon-like Bone is a very 
fmall Tongue ; the Ears of a mean Size, and the Eyes hazel coloured ; it has no Noftrils, 
but in their ftead a Furrow extended on each Side through the whole Length of the Bill j 
the Edges of both Mandibles appear ferrate, that it may hold firmly the Fifti it catcheth ; 
it hath four Toes all web'd together and (landing forward, and the Leg, from the Knee- 
joint to the End of the outward fore Claw, which is the longeft, is fix Inches ; it is 
feathered down to the Knees, and both Legs and Feet, as far as they are bare, is black ; 
the Claw of the middle Toe is broad and pedinated on the infide as in Herons ; the Plu- 
mage is like that of a Gaofe ; the Colour of them when they have moulted their Chicken 
Feathers is all over white, excepting the greater quill Feathers of the Wings which are 
black : In the old ones the Feathers on the Top of the Head, Neck and Back have a yel- 
lowifh Call. 

The young ones are party-coloured of white, dark brown, or black, on the upper 
Parts of their Bodies ; the Number uf quill Feathers in cadi Wing is about iliircy two, 
and the Tail is made up of twelve Feathers about feven Inches long. 

The blind Guts are very fhort, fcarce any Footflep remaining of the Channel convey- 
ing the Yolk into the Guts. 

Thefe Birds breed in the Bafs Ifland in Scotland^ and no where elfe, huge Numbers 
coming yearly thither, and each Female lays only one Egg. 

Upon this Ifland the Birds being never fhot at or frightned, are fo confident as to alight 
and feed their young ones clofe by you j they feed only upon Fi{h, yet are the young 
Geeje counted a great Dainty by the Scots^ and fold very dear ; the Lord of the Ifle making 
great Profits of them yearly. 

They come in the Spring, and go not away till the Autumn ; whither they go, and 
where they winter is not known. 

Thefe Birds are very induftrious and dextrous in catching Fifh ; by which the People 
of the Ifland are fupplied with frefh Fifh all the Summer. 



The 




^n/j-e'T 'Sa/Jtzmcif . 



T/ie Xc^^t/^ ffothi^ 




E^i^ ■ M^.'f' i^e&i. 



?y^ 




dl/'in.deltfv 



She^ &i>ikMn^ 



my 

The Goofander. Merganfer. Jyi.(!!'/u.<}^^ 

Numb. LXXXVII. S^S. 

ITS Weight is four Pound ; its Length from the Tip of the Bill to the 
End of the Tail twenty eight Inches ; its Breadth when extended for- 
ty Inches ; the Body is long, the Back broad and flat, and the Head and 
upper part of the Neck is of a dulky yellowifli brown, as is alfo the Creft; 
the lower back part of the Neck, Pinion of the Wing, Back, and upper 
Side of its Tail is of a dark cinereous Colour, inclining to a muddy brown ; 
the fore part of the Neck, Bread, Belly, and under part of the Tail, are 
of a faint filvery yellow, or Ifabella Colour ; the Tail is made up of eighteen 
Feathers. Each Wing hath about twenty fix prime Feathers, the ten out- 
ermofl black, and the four next alfo black, but tipt with white ; the five 
fucceeding white with their Bottoms black, and the remaining fix or {^w^w 
next the Body white, with their exterior Edges black ; in the fecond Row 
of the Wing, thofe incumbent on the white quill Feathers are white from 
the Tips to the middle, beneath black ; from thence as far as the Baftard 
Wing are all white, but between thofe white ones, and the long fcapular Fea- 
thers, fome black ones intervene ; whence if you take the long fcapular 
Feathers which cover the Back, and fore part of the Wing, the Wings will be, 
as Aldrovandus defcribes them, black towards the Back, next white, with a 
certain palenefs ; then black again, but more remifsly ; after that again white. 

The Bill meafured from the Tip to the Corners of the Mouth exceeeds 
the Length of a Man's middle Finger ; the lower Mandible is of a yellowifli 
brown, the upper Mandible fomewhat darker inclining to black, and 
hooked, both upper and lower toothed on both Sides like a Saw, and the 
Tongue and Palate yellow ; the Ears are round, the Noftrils large, and the 
lridei> of the Eyes of a fanguine Colour; the Legs and Feet are red, the 
back Toe broad, with an appendant Membrane, and it hath a huge bony 
Labyrinth on the Wind-Pipe, juft above the Divarications; and befides,the 
Wind- Pipe hath two Swellings, one above the other, each refembling a 
Powder Puff, and out of one there was taken Sprats. 

The Stomach is fcarce mufculous ; out of which was taken a Roach and 
an Rel ; it hatha Gall-bladder, and the blind Guts were three Inches long, 
and full of Excrements, The Flefh is not wholefome, having a fifhy un- 
plealant Tafte, 

Thi 



(84) 

The Wezel Coot. 

Numb. LXXXVIII. 

ITS Length from the Tip of the Bill to the End of the Tail, or Legs, is 
feventeen Inches; Breadth when the Wings are expanded two Foot 
three Inches and a half ; it weighs twenty four Ounces, and is about the 
Bignefs of a Teal. 

The Bill is black, the upper Mandible fomething longer than the lower, 
both ferrate, the upper fitting into that of the lower when clofed. 

The Top of the Head is brown, it hath a black Spot reaching from the 
Bill beyond the Eyes ; under the Eyes is a Spot of white like a Star ; the up- 
per Side of the Neck, Back and Tail are of a dusky brown, inclining to a 
black, and the under Side of the Neck, Breaft and Belly white. 

The Wings have twenty three quill Feathers each, the firft fourteen of 
which are black, and the feven following are white ; the twenty fecond 
hath its exterior Web white, and the interior black; the twenty third all 
black, and the upper covert Feathers of the Wings are white. 

The Tail is made up of fixteen Feathers of a dusky Colour, the middle- 
moft being the longeft, and fo fhorter by Degrees on each Side, makng 
a Semicircular Circumference when fpread. 

The Tongue is redifh, flefhy and channelled in the middle, ending in a 
thin filmy Subftance. 

The Legs and Toes are of a pale Orange Colour, in fome black ; the Mem- 
brane connedling the Toes is black ; the outer fore Toe equal with the middle 
Toe, having four Joints, the middlemoft three, and inner fore Toe but two 
Joints ; the hind Toe is large and flat, having a broad lateral Membrane an- 
nexed to it. 

Thefe Birds, when fat, are equal to the Teal in Tafle and Goodnefs. 



T:h 



oe 



^'^ 




the. '^''e£Uf£^ ^vi. 



-E^H^- /CU6i/7^ djelcn. 



?■? 





^Zi^^^i 



/^4<? JTTZtsn/ 



.£/i,^i : /7/lfif2, aCe^^fZ 



( 8J ) 

The Smew. Albellus. 

Numb. LXXXIX. 

IT weighs about twenty four Ounces ; its Length from the Point of the Bill to the 
End of the Tail is eighteen Inches and a halfj its Breadth when extended is twenty 
feven Inches. 

Its Head and Neck is white, except a black Spot under the Creft, which it hath 
hanging down backward from behind its Head, encompaffing the Creft, and ending in an 
acute Angle below, and another on each Side extending from the Angles of the Mouth to 
the Eyes ; theBreaft, Belly and under Side are white ; the Back and Wings are black and 
white, agreeably mixed on each Side, with feveral arcuate Lines of black, half incircling 
the Neck, refembling half a Collar. 

The Tail is dufky, between afh coloured and black, compofed of fixteen Feathers three 
Inches and a half long ; the middle Feathers are longeft, the reft on each Side gradually fhor- 
tening to the outermoft. 

The Bill is of a cinereous or Lead Colour, but at the Tip of each Mandible is a Spot of 
fordid white ; it is thicker at the Head, growing flenderer by degrees towards the Point, 
and narrower and lefs than the Duck-kind; the upper Mandible is hooked at the End, and 
toothed on the Sides ; the Noftrils are oblong, open, and at a good Diftance from the Fea- 
thers ; the Eyes are of a dark Colour 5 the Legs of a dark Lead Colour, the Toes being join'd 
by a dufky Membrane ; the foremoft Toe and back Toe have lateral appendant Mem- 
branes reaching their whole Length. 

The Wind-Pipe at the Divarication ends in a great, ftrong, bony Veffel, which is cal- 
led a Labyrinth, whence proceed the two Branches tending to the Lungs : This Bird hath 
but one blind Gut, which is ihort and blunt ; the Wind-Pipe is faftnedto the upper Angle 
of the Merry-thought, by a tranfverfe Ligament, and then afcends upwards to the Laby- 
rinth ; it feeds upon Fifties. 

. It hath a large G:ill, oblong Tefticles, and the Guts have many Revolutions ; the Sto- 
mach is larger than in graniverous Birds, and lefs mufculous, in which you will commonly 
find Fifties. 

The whole Head and Cheeks of the Female are red or fulvous, and the Throat white; 
on the Beginning of the Breaft above the Craw, there is feen as it were a Collar of a dar- 
ker or bro^vn Colour, and it hath no Creft ; all the upper Side except the Wings is of a 
dufky afh Colour, or brown ; about the middle of each Wing are two tranfverfe white Lines ; 
and in ail other Particulars it agrees with the Male. 

They feldom come into England but in hard Winters, and then not in large Flocks, 
but three or four together. 



tke 



/f.YLcy^^^ 



yzy. 



( 8.S) 



// n^h "^^^ Wild Goofe. Anfer Ferns. 



0^^ Numb. XC 



IT S Length from the Tip of the Bill to the End of the Tail is two 
Foot eleven Inches ; Breadth when the Wings are extended five Foot; 
the Length of the Neck from the Tip of the Bill to the fetting on of the 
Wings is feventeen Inches ; its Weight is feven Pound ana a quarter; the 
Bill two Inches and three quarters; the back part of its Head, Neck and 
Back, and generally its whole upper Side, excepting the Feathers incum- 
bent on the Tail, is of a dark brown, yet the uppermoft covert Feathers 
of the Wings are of a bluifh afh Colour; the fecond, third and fourth 
Rows of Wing Feathers, and likewife the fcapular ones, have white Edges 
about their Tips; the Feathers alfo next the Tail are purely white: The 
Quills of the Wings are twenty feven in Number, of a dark brown almoft 
black : The Tail is fix Inches long, compofed of eighteen brown Feathers, 
having their Tips and exterior Edges white ; the Colour of the Breaft and 
under Side of the Body is a light grey, inclining to brown, by degrees 
lighter from the Head to the Tail, under which it is perfe6lly white ; the 
Bill is of a dark Orange or Saffron Colour, and the Tip a light yellow : 
The upper Mandible all along is toothed or indented with many Rows of 
fmall Teeth, and the nether only with one Row on each Side ; the Tongue 
alfo hath on either Side a Row of Teeth in its bordering Membrane ; its 
Legs and Feet are of a Saffron Colour, its Claws black or livid, and un- 
der each Eye is a whitifh Line. 






The 



9d 




- . ^ZUntt de/t'n. 



The Ifi^ (jcK^M 




-^n/er .^^lamu 



^^ -l^i^ia^n<^ 



^/i^J/ianj/^ ^/i7v/e. 



2"^:^/^ c^: 



( 8/ ) 
The Spauijh Goofe, or Swan Goofe. Anfer cygnoides. 



I 



Numb. XCr. 

TS Weight is eight Pound and a half; its Length from 
the Tip of its Bill to the End of its Tail, three Foot fe- 
ven Inches ; Breadth four Foot eleven Inches ; the Back is 
of a dark grey mixed with redilh brown, the Belly whitiih, 
and the 1 hroat and Breaft of a pale rediih brown ; a Line 
or Lift of dark brown runs all along the Ridge of the Neck, 
from the Head to the Back ; the Bill is black, from the Root 
of which arifes a Knob or Bunch hanging over it, which in 
the Males and old Birds is very large ; a Line or Fillet of 
white between the Eyes and Bill adorns the Head ; the Tail 
is of the fame Colour with the Back and Wings, the Tips of 
the Feathers in fome of them being whitiih ; the Feet are of 
an Orange Colour, and in fome the Bill too, and the back 
Toe is little : It is a ftately Bird, walking with the Neck 
ere6l:ed. They frequently couple with our tame Geefe^ and 
produce a Baftard kind between both ; they are excellent 
Meat when young and fat, being of a different and plea- 
fant Tafte from that of the common Goofe. 




The 



C88) 
v^l/jc^ /^^ The Canada Goofe. Anfer Canadenfis. 

cr M A^^-^o^/^ ' Numb. XCII. 

^^^^j^-TTS Length from the Point of the Bill to the End of the 
^^f^^^f^\. Tail is two Foot two Inches ; the Breadth when the 
/^-(:u4^i^ ^^ Wings are extended four Foot feven Inches; Weight ^^^ 
J^M^/^c^A^C'^oVirA ; the Bill from the Poinc to the Angles of the Mouth 
^ Ui&M^ — one Inch and a quarter, of a black Colour ; the fore part 
AcrA^^^ ^'^^ of the Head, round the Eyes, and under the Chin, are of 
?tl^y /M ^P^^^ buff Colour; the back part of the Head, Neck, Back, 
,^^ and upper part of the Tail are black ; the Belly and Thighs 
are white, as is alfo the under Side of the Tail and Rump ; 
the whole Wing is of a dark grey, excepting the exterior 
EdgesandEndsof the quill Feathers, which is'^black, as are 
alfo the Ends of the upper covert Feathers of the Wings; 
the Eyes are ha2.el coloured, the Irides of the Eyes white ; 
the Eegs and Feet black, having the hind Toe. This Bird 
I had from Newgate Market ; it was fhot with other Wild- 
Fowl which was brought to that Place. I alfo received 
one from Mr. l^iil^ of Cew-green which was fliot on the Ri- 
ver Thames near Brentford in Aliddlejex; they are very 
good when taken young and in Fleili. Sir Robert Ahdy 
was pleafed to fend me one of thefe Birds fhot on the River 
Thame in CamhridgeJIoire. 



The 




dn^yer ^7ta4::^ficUii 







^Iht/t^r ^/ma^i^&n^ 



■?3 



93 




E.^/^fi/M- 



7.'7r>i^7 



,'i.: -.u^u 



. C 8? ) 

Tl, Br,.. 0.f,. B„n.. ^,,,^ 

Numb. XCIII. S^J • 

ITS Length is twenty five Inches from the Tip of the Bill 
to the End of the 1 ail ; the Breadth when the Wings are 
extended three Foot feven Inches and a half; Weight three 
Pound ten Ounces ; the Head, Neck, and upper Part of the 
Breall are a dark brown inclining to black, and in fome of 
them about the middle of the Neck, on each Side, is a fmall 
Spot or Line of w-hite, which together appear like a Ring 
of white ; the Back is fomething darker than that of the com-- 
mon Gooje \ the Feathers next to the Tail are white : the 
Breaft is of a dark grey, and the lower Belly white; the 
Tail, and greater quill Feathers of the Wings black, and the 
leiTer of a dark grey ; the Bill is fmall and black, an Inch 
and three quarters long, thicker towards the Head, and {len- 
der towards the Tip; the Eyes hazel coloured, the Noftrils 
great, and the Feet black, having the back Toe. 

Mr. Ra^ is of the Opinion that the Brent GooJe differs ■ 
fpecifically from the Barnacle ; however. Writers of Hiftor/ 
of Birds confound them, and make thefe Words fynoni- 
mous ; he having feen both the Kinds in His Majeftfs Tark 
at St. James's^ alfo one of the Bodies fluff ed of the Brent Goqfe 
at Mr. Johnfons at BrignaJ in Torkjhire, and that of tho: 
Barnacle in Sir pf^illiam Fojiers Hall z.t Bamburgh in Nor- 
thumherland. 

See Aldrovandus Ornhhologiay Book III. Chap. 37. and 
Book XIX. Chap. 37. 



A a Ike 




( 9^ ) 
The Sheldrake, or Burrough-Duck Vulpanfer. 

Numb. XCIV. 

TS Weight is forty eight Ounces ; its Length from the End of the Bill to the End of 

the Tail is twenty feven Inches ; Breadth between the Wings when extended is forty 

ene Inches ; its Bignefs is between a Goofe and a Duck ; the Bill is fhort, broad, turning 
a little upwards, broader at the Tip, of a red Colour, the Noftrils and Tip or Hook ex- 
cepted, which are black ; at the Bafe of the upper Mandible, near the Head, is an ob- 
long carnous Bunch or Knob ; the Head and upper Part of the Neck are of a dark green 
ihining like Silk, which at a diflant View looks black ; the reft of the Neck and Region of 
tiie Craw white ; the upper Part of the Breaft and Shoulders of an orange or bright bay 
Colour, and the fore part of the Body is encompaffed with a broad Ring of this Colour 9 
along the middle of the Belly, from the Breaft to the Vent, runs a broad black Line, and 
behind the Vent under the Tail, the Feathers are of a pale Orange Colour; the reft of 
the Breaft, Belly, under Side of the Wings, and middle of the Back are white ; the long 
fcapular Feathers are black, and all the Wing Feathers, as well quill as coverts, excep- 
ting thofe on the outermoft Joint, are white. 

Each Wing hath about twenty eight quill Feathers ; the ten foremoft or outermoft are 
black, as* are thofe of the fecond Row incumbent on them, except their Bottoms; above 
ihefe towards the Ridge of the Wing, grow two Feathers white below, having their Ed- 
ges round about black j the next twelve Quills, as far as they appear above their covert 
Feathers, are white on the infide the Shaft, and on the Outfide tinctured with a dark fhin- 
ing green ; the next three on the infide the Shaft are white, on the Outfide have a black 
Line next the Shaft, the remaining part being tin du red with an Orange Colour; the twenty 
fixth Feather is white, having its outer Edge black. 

The Tail hath twelve Feathers white, and tipt with black, except the outermoft which 
are all white. 

The Legs and Feet are of a pale red or Flefli Colour, the Skin being fo pellucid, that 
the Tradl of the Veins may eafily be difcerned through it. 

It hath as it were a double Labyrinth at the Divarication ofthe Wind Pipe: Its Flefti 
is not very favcury nor delicate although formerly efteemed, their Food is chiefly Water 
Infedts. 

They are found about feveral Lakes and Rivers near the Sea Co2iik.oi England SiUdWaleSj 
but chiefly in Lancajliire and EJfex. 

They are called by fome Burroiv Ducks becaufe they build in Coney Borroughs, by others 
Sheldrakes becaufe they are party-coloured ; and by others Berganders, which name is in 
Aldrovandtis, Book 19. C. 19. They love their young, and feem to imitate the Partridgt 
in leading the Fowler from them. 



The 




lu-^^a-fij-er 



TfliirilioTZ^, 



r/u /^^/7-J. 



Qt> 




.E.AllHn de/tM. 



i7n<z) JP'Junt/a 



Za f/ittatrla, ^^rvJ/V- 7li>tr. 



I'/u Slack fr&f^dDu.'/i. 



( 90 
The Tufted Duck. Anas Fuligula. /^i//u^ 




Numb. XCV. ^ 

ITS Weight is thirty two Ounces ; its Length from the Tip of the 
Bill to the End of the Tail is feventeen Inches and three quarters ; 
the Breadth when the Wings are extended thirty Inches ; the Bill from 
the Tip to the Corners of the Mouth is about two Inches long, broad, 
of a pale blue Colour, all but the Tip, which is black ; the Feathers of 
the Forehead defcend down the middle of the Bill in a Peak or Angle ; 
the Noftrils are great, and placed at fome Diftance from the Plumage ; 
the Ir'tdes of the Eyes are of a yellow or Gold Colour ; the Ears fmall, as is 
common in all Water-Fowl ; the Head, efpecially the Crown, is of a dark 
purple, inclining to black, or rather a Mixture of black with fome purple ; 
at Venice and other places in Ital'y^ it is called Capo Negro ; it hath a 
Creft or Crop hanging down backwards from the Head an Inch and a 
half long ; the Colour of the Neck, Shoulders, Back, in fine, the whole 
upper part, is a dark brown, almoft black. 

The Wings are fhort, and all the covert Feathers black ; the four outer- 
moft Quills of the fame Colour with the Body, the fucceeding by de- 
grees whiter ; the fecond Decade or middle Quills are purely white, ex- 
cept their Tips which are black ; the next fix are wholly black, and the 
Tail is very ftiort compofed of fourteen black Feathers. The nether Side 
of the Neck, and fore Part of the Breaft are black, and the reft of the Bread: 
and Belly as far as the Vent, of a white or filver Colour ; the lower the 
darker ; behind the Vent it is black, the lateral Feathers covered by the 
Wings when clofed ; thofe on the Thighs, and the under covert of the 
Wings are white ; the interior Baftard Wing confifts of fix white Feathers; 
the Legs are fhort and fituate backwards ; the Feet of a livid or dark Lead 
Colour, the Web black, and the Toes long. 

The Body is fhort, thick, broad, and fomething comprefTed or flat ; 
the Wind-Pipe hath its Labyrinth ; the Liver is divided into two Lobes, 
having a Gall annexed ; the Gizzard is compofed of thick Mufcles, and. 
therein was found nothing but fmall Stones and Sea Wreck. 

The 



^4"^ 




J//. 



The Golden E^e. Clangula. 

Numb. XCVI. 

ITS Weight is thirty two Ounces ; its Length from the End of the Bill 
to the End of the Claws is nineteen Inches ; Breadth when the Wings 
are extended is thirty one Inches ; it hath a thick and fhort Body, and 
large Head ; the Neck fliort, as is ufual in moft of this kind ; the Bill is 
broad, fhort, and fomething more elevated than is common to thofe of 
the Duck kind, thicker at the Head, lefler and narrower towards the Tip, 
and all black; from the Tip to the Angles of the Mouth an Inch and three 
quarters long ; the Head is of a changeable Colour of black, purple and 
green, as it is varioufly expofed to the Light, fhining like Silk ; at the Cor- 
ner of the Mouth, on each Side is a round white Spot as big as a Silver three- 
Pence ; the Irtdes of the Eyes are of a lovely yellow or Gold Colour; the 
whole Neck, both above and underneath the Shoulders, Breaft and whole 
Belly, are white ; the Space between the Shoulders, and all the lower part 
of the Back are black; the Wings party-coloured of black and white, viz, 
the middle Feathers both Quills and Coverts are white, and the outer and 
inner black; the long fcapular Feathers are alfo party-coloured of black 
and white. 

The Tail is three Inches and a half long, made up of iixteen Feathers, 
from the outermofl: by degrees longer; yet is not the Tail fharp, but ra- 
ther round pointed, all of an uniform black Colour. 

The Legs are very fhort, of a yellowifh red Colour, as are alfo the Feet ; 
the Toes are long, dufky about the Joints, and the outermofl the longeft i 
the innermoft hath a broad appendant Membrane : The Membranes con- 
nedling the Toes and the Claws are black, and the back Toe is fmall, ha- 
ving alfo a broad appendant Membrane or Fin ; the V/ind-Pipe hath a 
Labyrinth at the Divarication; and befides, above fwells out into a Belly 
or Puff-like Cavity. Thefe Birds are common in Italy^ and are fometimcs, 
taken on our Coaifs. It hath a £fhy unpleafant Tafte. 



the 



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( P3 ) ^ A- / 

The Shoveler. Anas clypeata Germanis Maf. Jy^u/^'- 

Numb. XCVII, and XCVIII. 

ITS Length from the Point of the Bill to the End of the Tail is one Foot 
nine Inches and a half; Breadth two Foot eight Inches ; Weight two 
Pound ; its Bill is three Inches long, coal black, much broader toward the 
Tip than at theBafe, excavated like a Buckler, of a round Circumference; 
at the End it hath a fmall crooked Hook or Nail ; each Mandible is pedti- 
naced or toothed like a Comb, with Rays or thin Plates inferted mutually 
one into another when the Mouth is fliut; the Tongue is flefhy, thick, 
broad, efpecially toward the Tip ; but the Tip itfelf is thinner and femi- 
circular; \\\Qlndes of the Eyes are of a deep yellow ; the Legs and Feet of a 
Vermilion Colour, and the Claws black ; the hind Toe little, the Mem- 
brane connefting the Toes ferrate about the Edges, and the Feet are lefs 
thaii in others of the Duck kind. 

The Head and Neck are of a dark fhining green ; the under Side of the 
Neck and Region of the Craw are white ; the upper Side and Shoulders 
party-coloured of white and brown ; the reft of the Breaft and the w^hole 
Belly to the Vent is red, and behind the Vent the Feathers under the 
Tail are black j the Back is brown, with a light Dafli of fhining green, 
blue or purple Colour ; the Feathers covering the Outiide of the Thighs 
are adorned with tranfverfe dusky Lines, as in many others. 

The Number of quill Feathers in each Wing are twenty four, and the 
ten or twelve outermoft are wholly brown, the next nine have their ou t- 
er Edges of a deep fhining green ; the four next the Body are varied in the 
middle, and about their Edges with white Lines : The Feathers of the fe- 
cond Row incumbent on the green quill Feathers have white Tips, which 
taken together, make a crofs Line of white in the "V^ing ; the leffer covert 
Feathers of the Wing, excepting thofe on the outermoft Bone, are of a 
pleafant blue, inclining to an afh Coluor ; the Tail is about three Inches 
and a half long, and conftfts of fourteen Feathers party-coloured of white 
and black, the outermoft being wholly white, and the middlemoft, except 
the extreme Edges, wholly black ; the reft black in their middle parts, and 
white about th:; Borders or Outlides. At the Divarication of the V/ind-Fipe 
it hath a fmall Labyrinth, a large Gall, oblong Tefticles ; a fmall mufcu- 
lous Stomach or Gizzard ; the Guts many times refleded and very long : 
The Female in refped: of Colours, both in the Head and Neck, the whole Body, 
upper Side and under Side, excepting the Wings, is very like to the IVild 
Duck; the Wings are of the fame Colour with thofe of the Male, but more 
dull, and wanting the Beauty which is in his. B b The 



( 94 ) 

vw Numb. XCIX. 

ITS Weight is thirty two Ounces ; its Length from the End of the Bill 
to the End of the Tail twenty five Inches and a half; the Breadth when 
the Wings are extended thirty four Inches ; its Bill is yellow with a Shade 
of dusky green, about two Inches and a half long, and almoft an Inch 
broad, not very flat, having a round Tip or Nail at the End of the upper 
Mandible, which is found in mofl of the Duck kind. 

Under the Throat, Bread and Belly it is of a light brown faintly fpotted; 
the Head, Back and Wings are of a dark brown fpotted with black ; thofe 
Feathers on the Back, and the covert Feathers on the Wings have light 
Edges ; it hath twenty four quill Feathers in each Wing of a dark brown 
Colour ; the next Row of Feathers are blue with white Tips, and the 
next only tipt with white. 

The Legs and Feet are of a deep Orange Colour ; the Claws black, and 
the innermofl fore Toe is the leafl: ; the Membranes conned;ing the Toes 
are of a more fordid Colour than the Toes: The Wind-Pipe at ks Divari- 
cation hath a VefTel called a Labyrinth. 

In Winter time they company together and fly in Flocks, and in Summer 
by Pairs, Duck and Mal/ar J together ; they build their Nefts among Heath 
or Ru{l:ies, not far from the Water, laying twelve or fourteen Eggs before 
they fit. 

In the Fens in the Ifie of Ely^ Norfolk, and L'tncolnjh'tre, about Crow- 
land, and elfewhere. Ducks, Teal, Widgeon, and other Birds of this kind, at 
the Time they moult their Feathers and cannot fly, arc taken yearly in 
great Numbers in Nets placed for that Purpofe. Vaft Numbers are like- 
wife taken in the Decoys by Ducks trained for that Purpofe, fome of which 
fly out and bring them to the Coy j others have the outermofl Joint or 
Pinion of their Wings cut off", fo that they cannot fly, but always abide in 
the Pool j thefe decoy the Ducks into the Pipes to be taken by the Fowler; 
they may alfo be taken by laying Hooks baited with Snails or large Worms 
in the Places where they frequent. 

The 




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"TAe J^eruA, 7e^ /, 



( 9J ) 
The Teal Querquedula. /ft/hi^^^ 

Numb. C» 

ITS Weight is twelve Ounces ; Length from the End of the Bill: to the End- of the 
Tail iixteen Inches and a quarter ; Breadth between the Wings when extended is 
twenty four Inches ; this next to the Summer "Tealy is the leaft of all the Duck kind ; its 
Bill is broad, black, and fomething refledled upward j the Eyes from white incline to a 
hazel Colour, and the Noftrils are of an Oval Figure j the Top of the Head, Throat, and 
upper part of the Neck are of a dark bay or ipadiccous Colour j from the Eyes on each 
Side to the Back of the Head, is extended a Line of fhining green, and between thefe 
Lines on the back of the Head, a black Spot intervenes ; under the Eyes a white Line 
feparates the black from the red ; the Feathers invefting the lower Side of the Neck, the 
Beginning of the Back, and the Sides under the Wings are curioufly varied wisrh tranfverfe 
waved Lines of white and black ; the Region of the Craw in fome is yellowifh, elegant- 
ly fpotted with black Spots, fo fituate as to refemble Scales ; the Breaft and Belly are of a 
fordid white or grey Colour, and under the Rump is a black Spot encompafied with a 
yellowifl:i Colour. 

Each Wing hath above twenty five Quills, of thefe the outer moft: ten are brown, the 
next five have white Tips, and under the white the exterior Web of the Feather is black j 
in the fixteenth begins the green, and takes up fo much of the Feather as is black in the 
precedent three ; the exterior Web of the twenty third is black, with fome yellownefs on 
the Edges j the covert Feathers of the black Quills have white Tips, and the green ones 
have Tips of a redifh yellow, elfe the Wings are all. over brown or dusky ; the Tail is 
{harp pointed, three Inches long, made up of fixteen Feathers of a brown or dulky Co- 
lour. 

The Legs and Feet are of a pale dufky Colour, the Membrane connecling the Toes are 
black ; and the innermoft Toe the leaft: The back Toe hath no Fin annexed ; the Wind-* 
Pipe in the Cock is furniftied with a Labyrinth, but in the Hen there is nonp.. 

The Female differs from its Male, in the fame Manner as the Wild Duck does fronx 
the Mallard, not having any green or red on the Head, nor black about its Rump, nor. 
thofe fine variegated Feathers of black and white on the Sides. 

This Bird for the delicate Tafte of its Flefh, and the wholefome Nourifhmenc it af- 
fords the Body, doth delervedly challenge the firft Place among thofe of its Kind. 



Thi 



( 90 
The Avojetta of the Italians. Recurviroftra. 

Numb. CI. 

5TS Length from the Tip of the Bill to the End of the Tail is fourteen 
Inches ; Breadth when the Wings are expanded twenty one Inches and a 
quarter ; Weight nine Ounces and twelve Drams ; the Bill is three Inches 
long, flender, black, flat or depreffed, refleded upwards, which is peculi- 
ar to this Bird, ending in a very thin, {lender, weak Point ; the Tongue is 
fliort, not cloven ; the Head is of a mean Size, round like a Ball, and black 
above the Eyes ; the Colour of the whole under Side of the Body is white, 
and the upper Side is partly white and partly black, viz, the outermoft 
<^uill Feathers of the Wings are above half way black, and the reft white, as 
are alfo the Feathers of the fecond Kow ; the reft of the covert Feathers almoft 
to the Ridge of the Wing are black, v^hich make a broad Bed of black, not 
directly crofs the Wing, but a little oblique ; on the Back again it hath 
two black Strokes, beginning from the Point of the Shoulder, or fetting on 
of the Wing, and proceeding tranfverfly till in the middle of the Back they 
do almoft meet ; the whole Tail is white, three Inches and a half long, 
made up of twelve Feathers ; the Legs are very long of a lovely blue Co- 
lour, bare above the Knees, and the Claws black and little j it hath aback 
Toe, but a very fmall one ; the blind Guts are flender almoft three Inches 
long, and the whole Length of the Guts is three Foot ; it hath a Gall-blad- 
der emptying itfelfinto the Gut by its own proper Dud or Channel, and a 
Gall- pore befldes; the Stomach is fmall, in which when diflTedted was 
found nothing but fmall Stones ; fo that thence it could not be learned 
on what it feeds. Indeed, the Bill being fo flender, weak, long, and of fo 
inconvenient a Figure, turning upwards, one would wonder how it could 
gather its Food, be it what it will. 

They are common at Rome 2in6. Venice^ and do alfo frequent our Rajtern 
Coafts of Suffolk and Norfolk in Winter time. 

This Bird I had from Newgate Market j it was brought to that Place 
with other Wild-Fowl. 



The 



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/{eaz^n ■^■/z>-J'/^^^l ^-i^'ZK^^^.Jki/tT^^im. 



The following Ohfervations I received from Dr, Derham 
after the Defcriptions were printed. 

DR. Derham hath obferved a conllderable Difference between the 
Cock and Hen Cuckow (Plate VIII.) viz. The Head, Throat, 
Neck and Back, as far as the Rump, in the Cock, is of a blewifh Lead 
Colour, like the Neck of a Pigeon; but in the Hen of a darker Co- 
lour, with a Dafh inclining to a reddifh Colour on the tips of the Neck 
Feathers ; the Wings alfo of the Cock are of a bluer, the Hen of a brown- 
er, or reddifh black Colour; the Bill and Eyes in the Cock are more 
yellow ; for good Reafons he fufpedls them to feed alfo on Birds Eggs. 

Dr. Derham hath a Magpie (Plate XV.) above twenty Years old, and 
is quite blind with Age ; it talks as well without cutting of the 
Tongue, as any whofe Tongues are cut. 

He hath obferved the Cock Jay (Plate XVI.) to be fomewhat bigger 
than the Hen, the Feathers on the Head to be blacker, the Stripes 
longer, and the black and blue Colours more elegant in the Cock 
than in the Hen. 

Alfo he hath obferved the Lift on the Back of the Hen Wryneck 
(Plate XXI.) to reach along the Neck, almoft to the very Bill ; but in 
the Cock to run no farther than to the upper part of the Neck. 

Alfo he obferved the Cock's Belly to be naked, as the Hen's that fits ; 
whence he concludes that it takes its turn in Incubation. 

He hath obferved the Pippit (Plate XLIV.) to frequent Heaths, and 
Plains, and iings by flying up in the Air, not high, and again down to 
the Ground, or on a low Bufh, after the manner that the Tit-Lark doth 
on a Tree. 

Alfo he hath obferved the Cock Ox-Eye Titmoufe (Plate XLVI.) to 
be fomewhat bigger than the Hen ; the black Lift on the Breaft and 
Belly of the Cock to be fomewhat broader and more illuftrious. 

C c Alfo 



Dr, DerhamV Ohfervations, 

Alfo lie obferved upon a ftrid Infpedion, the Cock blue Titmoufe 
(Plate XLVII.) to be a little bigger than the Hen, and all his Colours 
more illuftrious, particularly the yellow under the Chin, and the blue on 
the outiide of the Wings and on the Tail. 

He hath likewife obferved the Golden Crown- Wren (Plate LIII.) to 
build its Ned every Year in Fir-Trees, (growing before his Houfe at Up-- 
m'lnjier in EfJ ex)2iViA that with great Art, hanging them under the Branches 
in fome thick obfcure part thereof. Their Neft is made with green 
Mofs intermixed with Cobwebs, which gives it a great Strength, and 
helps to dodge the Eye of Spectators. It is as big as a large Ball, co-- 
ver'd over as the Wrens, with an Hole in the Side for Ingrefs and Egrefs. 



ERRATA. 

PAge J. Line 8. p. 3. I. 8. p. 4. I. 26. p. f. I. 7. and p. 14. 1. 6. for Iridh , read Irides. p. n . 1. 2. 
for MaccaK, r.Maccaw. p. 35-. 1. i. for Meruit, r. MeruU. p. 40. 1. i. (or A lav da Silveflris, r. ylUv- 
da Arbotea. p. 49. 1. I. for Rubecultts, r. Rubecula. p. fi. I. i. for troglodites, r. trolodytes. p. 8i. 1. 1. 
for BaJfenHS., r. Bajfanus, p. 94. 1. 1. for Cerra, r. Anas Torquata minor. 



THE 



^lV■.■ 



THE 



INDEX 



F 



A LP or Bulfinch 
jTj^ Avofette 


Plate CO 


Fallow-Smich 


lOI 


Fieldfare 


B 




G 

Glead 


Beardmanica 


48 


Goatfucker 


Bill-Cock or Water-Rail 


77 


Golden-Eye 


Bitour or Bittern 


68 


Goligod 


Blackbird 


37 


Goofe(Wild) 


Brent-Goofe 


93 


Goofe (Brent) 


Bulfinch 


60 


Goofe (Swan) 


Buzzard (Common) 


I 


Goofe (Canada) 


Buzzard (Honey) 


2 


Goofander 


Buzzard (Moor) 


3 


Grofbeak 

Grous or Heathcock 


C 




Guillemot 
Gold-Finch 


Canarybird 


65 


Green-Finch 


Chaffinch 


63 




Churn-Owl 


10 


H 


Coot 


83 


Hawfinch 


Weezel-Coot 


88 


Heath-Cock (Black) 


Crofsbill 


61 


Heron 


Cuckow 


8 


Hobby 


Curlew 


79 


Hammer (Yellow) 


Curlew (Stone) 


69 


J 


I> 








Jack-Daw 


Daker-Hen 


32 


Jay Englifh 


Diver (Great fpeckled) 


82 


Jay from Bengali 


Diver (Crefted) 


81 




Dove (Greenland) 


85 


K 


Duck (Wild) 


99 


Keftrel 


Duck (Black-crefted) 


95 


Kingfifher 


Duck (Burrow) 


■ ;. 94 


Kite 



55 
36 



4 
JO 

96 

80 
90 

93 
91 

92 

84 

68 

58 



56 
22 
67 

66 



16 
17 



7 
54 

L» Lapwing 



The INDEX. 



Lapwing 
Lark (Sky) 
Lark (Wood) 
Lark (Sea) 
Lark (Tit) 
Laurey 
Loon 



M 



Maccaw 

Magpie 

Mavis or Throftlc 

MiffelbirdorThrufh 

N 

Nightingal (Virginia) 

Nun (White) 

Nun or Ble'jv Titmoufe 



O 



Owzel (Ring) 
Olive or Sea-Pie 
Owl (Brown) 
Owl (Fern; 
Ox-Eye 



Parrot (Gray) 

Partridge 

Partridge (Red-Leg'd) 

Partridge (New-England) 

Pheafant 

Pippit 

Pie (Sea) 

Plover (Green) 

Plover (Gray) 

Plover (Baftard) 

Quail 

Quail from Bengali 



74 

41 

42 

80 

43 

13 
82 

II 



Red-Game 

Redwing 

Redbird 

Rcdftart 

Robin-Redbreaft 

RufF 

Reve 



23. 



Sheldrake 

Shovelar 

Snipe 

Sparrow-Hawk 

Sparrow (Houfe) 

Soland Goofe 

Starling 
8^ Starling (Red-wing'd) 
An Stannel 

Stonechatter 

Swallow 



15 

34 

33 



57 



R 



Rail (Land) 
Rail (Water) 



3^ 

78 

9 

ID 
46 



12 

27 

29 

28 

15,26 

, 44 
78 

76 
74 



30 
31 



32 
77 



Teal 

Thiftlefinch 
Throftle 
Thrufli (Song) 
Titmoufe (BeardedJ 
Titmoufe (Blue) 
Titmoufe (Ox-Eye) 

W 

Water-Wagtail 

White-ear 

White-Nun 

White-Tail 

Windhover 

Woodpecker (Green) 

Woodpecker (Qreat-Spotted) 

Woodpecker (Lefler-Spotted) 

Wren 

Golden Wren 

Wryneck 

V. 4 



Yellow-Hammcr 



24 

S3 

S7 

50 

51 
72 

71 



94 

97> 98 

71 

5 
62 

86 

40 

38 

7 
52 
45 



100 

64 

33 
34 
48 

46 



49 

19 
20 

53 

53 
21 



66 



Ji- 



r 



M§i 



m 




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r: , c 



C^€ 



W§^ 






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r- 



1. 





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